Study the stratospheric ozone irregularity over Pakistan atmospheric region in perspectives of wavelet analysis

  • Bulbul JanEmail author
  • Muhammad Ayub Khan Yousufzai
  • Faisal Ahmed Khan Afridi
  • Faisal Nawaz
Original Paper


The stratospheric ozone behavior is of great importance for the shelter of life on the earth’s biosphere from harmful UV radiation. A wavelet technique and explorative analysis are applied on ozone monthly time series data set from 1970 to 2013 for the stratospheric region of Pakistan. Such analysis was performed in order to fully characterize the distinct time-frequency ozone variability. Moreover, in the analysis of ozone irregularity, the main frequency constituents in the data set are estimated by the global wavelet scale. The results obtained in this investigation confirmed particular patterns that could be used to describe the regional condition of ozone. The wavelet approach illustrates a strong power spectrum along with the 2–16-month cycle, indicating an annual oscillation of 12 months for whole data set, which is investigated by the peak of the integration of time average of power over time that also reveals powerful annual pulses. The low variance period results in a band emphasized the presence of variation for seasonal interval of stratospheric ozone for each month starting from January to December. The main objective of this paper is to study the dynamics of ozone concentration at the atmospheric region of Pakistan. It also aims to examine the role of the particular ozone concentration patterns indicating inter-annual irregularity of Ozone status.


Stratospheric ozone Ozone layer depletion Wavelet analysis Wavelet spectra Global wavelet 



We are thankful to the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) and Pakistan Meteorological Department, Quetta, for providing the required data of ozone concentration for Pakistan’s atmospheric region. The meaningful comments from referees are also appreciated. We are also thankful to C. Torrence and G. Compo for providing the important wavelet Matlab codes available online at URL:


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bulbul Jan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Ayub Khan Yousufzai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Faisal Ahmed Khan Afridi
    • 1
  • Faisal Nawaz
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Space and Planetary AstrophysicsUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Applied PhysicsUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Basic SciencesDawood University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan

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