Monitoring stream water quality of Dagwan stream, an important tributary of Dal Lake, Kashmir Himalaya

  • Inam Sabha
  • Sami Ullah BhatEmail author
  • Aadil Hamid
  • Javeed Ahmad Rather
Original Paper


The assessment of water quality of the Dagwan stream encompassing spatiotemporal variations in physicochemical parameters and all important and relevant hydrological attributes was carried out at five different sites for a period of 1 year (June 2014–May 2015). Statistical techniques like analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis, and regression analysis applied to datasets revealed spatiotemporal variations. ANOVA and Tukey’s box plot was applied and resulting F values showed the significance of observed variation of each parameter at 5% level of significance in which some parameters do not change significantly. The higher positive and negative relationship among various analyzed water quality parameters were described by general linear regression model (P < 0.0001). The study of physicochemical parameters signify that the quality of its water substantially declines while moving downstream. The water quality sites were classified into significant clusters (clusters I and II) by cluster analysis. Cluster I (sites I and II) is illustrated by similar and better water quality whereas cluster II (sites II, IV, and V) is considered to be of moderately reduced water quality, thereby reflecting the different physicochemical characteristics and quality class. The results from water quality index (WQI) validate that water of the Dagwan stream falls within the excellent to very good category of water quality class. While comparing the results with WHO standards, the water quality was in permissible limits. The escalating level of pollution from upstream to downstream sites indicated slight anthropogenic stress in the downstream areas of the Dagwan stream.


Dagwan stream ANOVA Linear regression Water quality index Cluster analysis 



We are highly thankful to the head of the Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kashmir, for providing all the lab facilities. Thanks are also due to the Wildlife department and Dachigam National Park officials for facilitating the research work in the field. The authors acknowledge the role of Dr. Sajad Hussain Wani, Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, for going through the article which enhanced the language quality of this research article. Thanks are also due to two anonymous reviewers whose inputs helped in improvement of quality of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


  1. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Arheimer B, Liden R (2000) Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for agricultural catchments: influence of spatial and temporal variables. J Hydrol 227(1–4):140–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badar B, Romshoo SA, Khan MA (2013) Geospatial modelling for impact assessment of changing land system on erosion and sediment yield in a micro-watershed of Dal lake, Kashmir Himalaya. J Earth Syst Sci 122(2):433–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Downes BJ, Lake PS, Schreiber ESG (1993) Spatial variation in the distribution of stream invertebrates—implications of patchiness for models of community organization. Freshw Biol 30:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hastie T, Tibshirani R, Friedman J (2001) The elements of statistical learning—data mining, inference, and prediction. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, p 533Google Scholar
  6. Ismail AH, Abed BSH, Abdul-Qader S (2014) application of multivariate statistical techniques in the surface water quality assessment of Tigris River at Baghdad stretch, Iraq. J Babylon Univ/Eng Sci 2(22):450–462Google Scholar
  7. Li S, Xu Z, Cheng X, Zhang Q (2008) Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. Environ Geol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mulholland PJ, Steinman AD, Palumbo AV, Elwood JW, Kirschtel DB (1991) Role of nutrient cycling and herbivory in regulating periphyton communities in laboratory streams. Ecology 72:966–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Olajire AA, Imeokparia FE (2001) Water quality assessment of Osun River: studies on inorganic nutrients. Environ Monit Assess 69(1):17–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ott L (1988) An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis third edition. PWS Publishing Company, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  11. Pandit AK (1999) Freshwater ecosystems of the Himalaya. Dal Lake Ecosystem. Parthenon Publication, New York London, pp 86Google Scholar
  12. Qadir A, Malik RN, Husain SZ (2007) Spatio-temporal variations in water quality of Nallah Aik-tributary of the river Chenab, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 140(1–3):43–59Google Scholar
  13. Ragno G, Luca MD, Ioele G (2007) An application of cluster analysis and multivariate classification methods to spring water monitoring data. Microchem J 87(2):119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rajini K, Roland P, John C, Vincent R (2010) Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of drinking water in George Town. Nat Sci 8(8):261–265Google Scholar
  15. Ramchandra TV, Solanki M (2007) Ecological assessment of lentic water bodies of Bangalore. ENVISTechnical Report 25. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  16. Reghunath R, Murthy T, Raghavan BR (2002) The utility of multivariate statistical techniques in hydrogeochemical studies: an example from Karnataka, India. Water Res 36(10):2437–2442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shrestha S, Kazama F (2007) Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: Fuji river basin Japan. Environ Model Softw 22(4):464–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shyamala R, Shanthim LP (2008) Physicochemical analysis of bore well water samples of Telungupalayam area in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. E- J Chem 5(4):924–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Singh KP, Malik A, Mohan D, Sinha S (2004) Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti River (India): a case study. Water Res 38:3980–3992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sliva L, Williams DD (2001) Buffer zone versus whole catchment approaches to studying land use impact on river water quality. Water Res 35:3462–3472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sundaray SK, Panda UC, Nayak BB, Bhatta D (2006) Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of the Mahanadi river-estuarine system (India) a case study. Environ Geochem Health 28(4):317–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sunitha V, Muralidhara RB, Ramakrishna RM (2012) Variation of fluoride and correlation with alkalinity in groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers—a case study in and around Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research 1(4):569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Varol M, Gökot B, Bekleyen A, Sen B (2012) Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources of Tigris River (Turkey) using, multivariate statistical techniques: a case study. River Res Appl 28(9):1428–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vie JC, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2009) Wildlife in a changing world: an analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red list of threatened species. IUCN, GlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wetzel RG, Likens G (2000) Limnological analysis, 3rd edn. Springer Science and Business Media, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang YH, Zhou F, Guo HC (2010) Analysis of spatial and temporal water pollution patterns in Lake Dianchi using multivariate statistical methods. Environ Monit Assess 170(1–4):407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zar JH (2009) Biostatistical analysis, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inam Sabha
    • 1
  • Sami Ullah Bhat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aadil Hamid
    • 1
  • Javeed Ahmad Rather
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Regional Development, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations