Advertisement

Analysis of rock alteration in a hydropower engineering project, southeastern China

  • Tong Jiang
  • Xuwei PanEmail author
  • Miao Ren
  • Minghao Ren
  • Jiahua Lei
  • Jinyu Dong
Original Paper
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

The characteristics of rock and mineral alteration of a rock mass related to a hydropower engineering project in southeastern China are analyzed and presented. Rock mass alteration is an important engineering geology challenge in the region; in this study, it is shown that the main types of alteration are albitization and formation of clay minerals. The main minerals in the altered rocks are plagioclase, K-feldspar, montmorillonite, illite, and kaolinite and the alteration processes were tracked using the interrelationships between K, Na, Ca, and loss on ignition during formation of illite, montmorillonite, and kaolinite. Laboratory testing of rock physical properties showed that water content, natural water absorption, and saturated water absorption in the altered rocks all gradually increase as the degree of alteration increases. However, rock mass density shows a decreasing trend with increasing alteration, and the degree of alteration exerts little influence on rock particle density. Rock disintegration tests show that the disintegration index decreases as alteration deepens.

Keywords

Hydropower engineering Alteration Mineral composition Physical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Henan Institution of Higher Education Key Scientific Research Project (16A410004) is acknowledged. We thank Warwick Hastie, PhD, and Lucy Muir, PhD, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of drafts of this manuscript. The authors also wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 41,602,295, U1704243, 41,602,298) and the Doctoral Student Innovation Foundation of North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power. The work was partially supported by the High-level Talents Foundation of the North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power (201501001).

References

  1. Abbaszadeh M, Hezarkhani A (2013) Enhancement of hydrothermal alteration zones using the spectral feature fitting method in Rabor area, Kerman, Iran. Arab J Geosci 6(6):1957–1964.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-011-0495-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Feng WQ (1988) Petrology study in the dam area of Ertan Hydropower Station. Des Hydroelect Power Station 01:55–63Google Scholar
  3. Guo YXY (2015) Zoning regularities of mineralization and alteration and prospecting direction for the Beiya gold poly-metallic deposit, Northwestern Yunnan, China. Dissertation, Kunming University of Science and Technology (Kunming)Google Scholar
  4. Guo QL, An QM, Zhao SG (2002) Application of hydraulic fracturing test in the design of Guangzhou pump storage project. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 21(6):828–832Google Scholar
  5. Huang KK, Huang SJ, Tong HP, Liu LH (2009) Thermodynamic calculation of feldspar dissolution and its significance on research of clastic reservoir. Geol. Bull. China 28(04):474–482Google Scholar
  6. Huang ZQ, Hou HM, Wang Z (2011) Alteration and engineering characteristics of altered-rock in Tianchi Pumped-storage Power Station. J North China Univ Water Conserv Hydroelec Power 32(05):1–5Google Scholar
  7. Jiang QX (2016) Wall rock alteration characteristics of JiangXi DaWutang tungsten polymetallic deposit. Dissertation, East China University of Technology (Nanchang)Google Scholar
  8. Kohno M, Maeda H (2012) Relationship between point load strength index and uniaxial compressive strength of hydrothermally altered soft rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min 50:147–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ladygin V, Frolova J, Rychagov S (2000) Formation of composition and petrophysical properties of hydrothermally altered rocks in geothermal reservoir. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress: 2695–2699Google Scholar
  10. Mao JR, Li ZL, Ye HM (2014) Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activities in South China: retrospect and prospect. Sci China Earth Sci 57(12):2853–2877.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-014-5006-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Meng GT, Xu WY, Yang SQ, Liu JT, Yan XC (2008) Genesis mechanism and engineering characteristics of G23 mylonitization and fractured belt in dam foundation of a hydropower station. Rock Soil Mech 29(06):1691–1696Google Scholar
  12. Miao Z (2015) Study on influence of altered-rock to geological characteristics and its engineering-exemplified by Dagangshan Hydro Power Station. Dissertation, Chengdu University of Technology (Chengdu)Google Scholar
  13. Miao Z, Shen JH, Li WG, Li JB, Chen WD (2013) Alteration and geological characteristics of granite in dam area of Dagangshan Hydropower Station. Yangtze River 44(24):23–25+38Google Scholar
  14. Nie L, Tao ZP, Zhou DP, Yang T (2012) Analysis of large deformation characteristics of excavation of Fushui altered rock tunnel. Railw Eng (05):57–59Google Scholar
  15. North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power, HydroChina Zhongnan Engineering Corporation (2010) Research report on engineering geologic characteristics study of altered rocks of Henan Tianchi pumped storage power stationGoogle Scholar
  16. Pola A, Crosta GB, Fusi N, Castellanza R (2014) General characterization of the mechanical behaviour of different volcanic rocks with respect to alteration. Eng Geol 169:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Potro RD, Hürlimann M (2009) The decrease in the shear strength of volcanic materials with argillic hydrothermal alteration, insights from the summit region of Teide stratovolcano, Tenerife. Eng Geol 104(1–2):135–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2008.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sandström B, Annersten H, Tullborg EL (2010) Fracture-related hydrothermal alteration of metagranitic rock and associated changes in mineralogy, geochemistry and degree of oxidation: a case study at Forsmark, central Sweden. Int J Earth Sci 99(1):1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-008-0369-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shi YC, Zhang ZY (1991) A study on the rheological characteristics of the uralitized basalt weak rock band in the right abutment of Ertan arch dam. J Chengdu Coll Geol 18(2):72–81Google Scholar
  20. Sun Q (2015) Rock alteration in a hydraulic engineering project in Southwest China. Arab J Geosci 8(1):23–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-1194-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun Q, Zhu SY, Xue L (2012) Genesis mechanism and engineering characteristics of altered rock in southwest China. J Cent South Univ 43(12):4819–4826Google Scholar
  22. Wang AM, Li XG, Huang ZQ, Huang XC, Wang ZF, Wu Q, Cui JL, Lu XJ (2015) Laboratory study on engineering geological characteristics and formation mechanism of altered rocks of Henan Tianchi pumped storage power station, China. Environ Earth Sci 74(6):5063–5075.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4520-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xiang XK, Yin QQ, Feng CY, Wang H, Liu NQ, Yu ZD (2015) Elements and fluids migration regularity of granodiorite alteration zones in the Shimensi tungsten polymetallic deposit in northern Jiangxi and their constrain on mineralization. Acta Geol Sin 89(07):1273–1287Google Scholar
  24. Yang GL (2007) Altered-rock characteristics and its engineering respondences studying—exemplified by Xiaowan Hydropower Station Lancang river. Dissertation, Chengdu University of Technology (Chengdu)Google Scholar
  25. Yang GF, Zhuo SG, Niu B, JJ E (2003) Albitization of detrital feldspar in cretaceous sandstones from the Songliao Basin. Geol Rev 49(02):155–161+228Google Scholar
  26. Yang GL, Huang RQ, Cai GJ, Fu XM, Lin F, Xu DM (2008) Conventional triaxial compression test I of altered rock: study of classification of strain-stress curve before and after destruction and brittle-ductile diversion confining pressure. Rock Soil Mech 29(10):2759–2763Google Scholar
  27. Zhang YS, Qu YX, Liu JR, Guo CB (2007) Engineering geological research on altered rocks in the area of NW Yunnan along Yunnan-Tibet Railway line. Chin J Geotech Eng 29(4):531–536Google Scholar
  28. Zhang GW, Guo AL, Dong YP, Yao AP (2011) Continental geology, tectonics and dynamics. Earth Sci. Front 18(03):1–12Google Scholar
  29. Zhang GQ, Wang QS, Yu YP, Yang C, Xiao J (2012) Stratigraphic age and subdivision of volcanic rocks in Eastern Zhejiang. J Stratigr 36(03):641–652Google Scholar
  30. Zhang GW, Guo AL, Wang YJ, Li SZ, Dong YP, Liu SF, He DF, Cheng SY, Lu RK, Yao AP (2013) Tectonics of South China continent and its implications. Sci China Earth Sci 56(11):1804–1828.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-013-4679-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhao MD, Zhang PY (1983) Plate tectonics of Zhejiang province. Acta Geol Sin (04):369–378Google Scholar
  32. Zhao R, Liu XF, Pan RG, Zhou M (2015) Element behaviors during alteration and mineralization: a case study of the Xinli (altered rock type) gold deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula. Acta Petrol Sin 31(11):3420–3440Google Scholar
  33. Zhao JY, Zhang H, Tang Y, Zhenghang Lü ZH, Chen Y (2017) Ore-forming elements diffusion and distribution in the altered host rock surrounding the Koktokay No.3 pegmatite in the Chinese Altay. Acta Geochimica 36(2):151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henan Province Key Laboratory of Rock and Soil Mechanics and Structural Engineering, College of Geosciences and EngineeringNorth China University of Water Resources and Electric PowerZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations