Advertisement

Morphometric analysis of the Idemili Basin using geospatial techniques

  • Christopher Uche EzehEmail author
  • Arinze Tagbo Mozie
Original Paper
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

The response of a watershed to produce runoff after rain event depends on the characteristics of the basin. This characteristic is peculiar to every basin and varies depending on the type of rock, geology, soil, climatic belt, and extent of anthropogenic activities. Information regarding these controlling factors is vital for a sustainable management of the basin. However, many of the watersheds especially in the developing world lack the basic facilities for acquiring the runoff data or other basin’s response to rainfall event like sediment yield. The simplest approach to obtaining such information is via the morphometric parameters of the basin. This necessitated the need for this study. The study carried out a morphometric analysis of the Idemili Basin in southeastern Nigeria by employing geospatial tools in ArcMap to investigate the basin’s characteristics. The basin is a fourth-order basin with a rectilinear drainage pattern. The shape parameters indicate a pear-shaped basin. The mean bifurcation ratio indicates the basin developed in a hilly terrain with somewhat geologic influences over time as it developed on a weak, porous sandstone. Intensive watershed management is needed in the basin to ensure the sustainability of the basin and its ecosystem. The study also demonstrates that geospatial techniques and the digital elevation model are vital tools for watershed characterisation especially in data-scarce regions.

Keywords

Morphometric GIS Geospatial Analysis DEM Nigeria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Many thanks go to my supervisor, Mr. A. T. Mozie, for his guidance throughout the duration of the project from which this piece is a product.

Funding information

The NsukkaUSA Inc. is highly appreciated for financially supporting the project.

References

  1. Bagyaraj M, Gurugnanam B, Nagar A (2011) Significance of morphometry studies, soil characteristics, erosion phenomena and landform processes using remote sensing and GIS for Kodaikanal Hills, a global biodiversity hotpot in Western Ghats, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India. Res J Environ Earth Sci 3:221–233Google Scholar
  2. Biswas A, Majumdar DD, Banerjee S (2014) Morphometry governs the dynamics of a drainage basin: analysis and implications. Geogr J 2014:1–14Google Scholar
  3. Danielson T (2013) Utilizing a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to develop a Stream Power Index (SPI) for the Gilmore creek watershed in Winona County, Minnesota. In: Papers in resource analysis, vol 15. Saint Marys University of Minnesota University Central Services Press, Winona, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  4. Doornkamp JC, King CA (1971) Numerical analysis in geomorphology-an introduction. Edwardand Arnold, London, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  5. Farhan Y (2017) Morphometric assessment of Wadi Wala Watershed, Southern Jordan using ASTER (DEM) and GIS. J Geogr Inf Syst 9:158–190Google Scholar
  6. Giusti EV, Schneider WJ (1965) The distribution of branches in river networks. Professional paper, United States Geological Survey, Washington DC, pp 1–422Google Scholar
  7. Gregory K, Walling D (1968) The variation of drainage density within a catchment. Hydrol Sci J 13:61–68Google Scholar
  8. Gundekar H, Arya D, Goel° N (2011) Morphometric study of the Dudhana river basin(Maharashtra). Hydrol J 34:33–41Google Scholar
  9. Horacio J (2014) River sinuosity index: geomorphological characterisation. Technical note 2. CIREF and Wetlands International, Ede, p 6Google Scholar
  10. Horton RE (1932) Drainage-basin characteristics. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Horton RE (1945) Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins; hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Geol Soc Am Bull 56:275–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Howe GM, Slaymaker HO, Harding DM (1966) Flood hazard in mid-Wales. Nature 212(5062):584–585Google Scholar
  13. Ifeka A, Akinbobola A (2015) Trend analysis of precipitation in some selected stations in Anambra State. Atmos Clim Sci 5:1–12Google Scholar
  14. Igwe C (2012) Gully erosion in southeastern Nigeria: role of soil properties and environmental factors. In: Godone D, Stanchi S (eds) Research on soil erosion. IntechOpen.  https://doi.org/10.5772/51020
  15. Jain S, Seth S, Nema R (1995) Morphometric analysis of Sei dam catchment using GIS. Proceedings of National Symposium on Hydrology, Jaipur, 5–7Google Scholar
  16. Kirchner JW (1993) Statistical inevitability of Horton’s laws and the apparent randomness of stream channel networks. Geology 21:591–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar V (2011) Elongation ratio. In: Singh VP, Singh P, Haritashya UK (eds) Encyclopedia of snow, ice and glaciers. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p 1232Google Scholar
  18. Miller, V. C. (1953) A quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin characteristics in the Clinch mountain areas. USA, Technical Report, Columbia University, Department of Geology, Issue 3, p.51Google Scholar
  19. Moeini A, Zarandi NK, Pazira E, Badiollahi Y (2015) The relationship between drainage density and soil erosion rate: a study of five watersheds in Ardebil Province, Iran. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 1:129–138Google Scholar
  20. Ofomata GEK (1987) Soil erosion in Nigeria: the views of a geomorphologist. University of Nigeria Press, p 42Google Scholar
  21. Rao NK, Latha SP, Kumar AP, Krishna HM (2010) Morphometric analysis of Gostani River basin in Andhra Pradesh state, India using Spatial information technology. Intl J Geomat Geosci 1(2):179–187Google Scholar
  22. Ratnam KN, Srivastava Y, Rao VV, Amminedu E, Murthy K (2005) Check dam positioning by prioritization of micro-watersheds using SYI model and morphometric analysis—remote sensing and GIS perspective. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 33:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schumm SA (1956) Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Selby M (1989) Fluvial forms and processes. By David Knighton. N Z Geogr 45:96–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sreedevi PD, Subrahmanyan K, Ahmed S (2004) The significance of morphometric analysis for obtaining groundwater potential zones in a structurally controlled terrain. Environ Geology 47:412-420Google Scholar
  26. Strahler AN (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 38:913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basin and channel networks. In: Chow V (ed) Handbook of applied hydrology. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 439–476Google Scholar
  28. Udo RK (1975) Geogrpahical regions of Nigeria. Heinemann Educational Press Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Verstappen HT (1983) Applied geomorphology: geomorphological surveys for environmental development. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 437Google Scholar
  30. Yunus AP, Oguchi T, Hayakawa YS (2014) Morphometric analysis of drainage basins in the Western Arabian Peninsula using multivariate statistics. Int J Geosci 5:527–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zavoiance I (1985) Morphometry of drainage basins (developments in water science), vol 20. Elsevier, New York, pp 1–251Google Scholar
  32. Zavoianu I (2011) Morphometry of drainage basins (developments in water science). Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 237Google Scholar
  33. Zhang L, Guilbert E (2012) A study of variables characterizing drainage patterns in river networks. ISPRS 39:B2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations