Advertisement

Effectiveness evaluation of natural fractures in Xujiahe Formation of Yuanba area, Sichuan basin, China

  • Hu Li
  • Hongming TangEmail author
  • Qirong QinEmail author
  • Qin Wang
  • Cheng Zhong
Original Paper

Abstract

The effectiveness of natural fractures restricts petroleum exploration and development of tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Taking Xujiahe Formation in Yuanba area of Sichuan basin as an example, the effectiveness of natural fractures is studied by using outcrop, core, thin slice, imaging logging, and production data. Natural fractures of Xujiahe Formation are relatively well developed and structural shear fractures are the most developed ones, which mainly composed of high angle fractures and almost perpendicular to rock stratum. Statistics of fracture basic parameters (outcrop, core, and thin slice) are done and the fracture density is calculated. The main strike of the fractures is NW-SE, nearly E-W, nearly S-N, and NE-SW, formation period can be divided into four stages. The controlling factors of the fracture effectiveness are fracture filling and opening degree, fracture formation period, and the maximum horizontal principal stress. There are obvious differences in the effectiveness of different fracture types and occurrences, the effectiveness of high angle fractures, vertical fractures, and the fracture strike of NW-SE, nearly E-W is the best, which is of great significance for the development of tight gas sandstone reservoirs.

Keywords

Natural fractures Effectiveness Tight sandstone Low porosity and low permeability Xujiahe Formation Yuanba area 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to Exploration Company, SINOPEC, for their kind help and support to complete this study and the permission to publish the results. We thank all the editors and reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Science and Technology Project of China (No. 2017ZX05036003-003), the National Science Foundation of China (No. 51674211).

References

  1. Andrea R, Stefano T, Emanuele T et al (2016) Fracture characteristics in Cretaceous platform and overlying ramp carbonates: an outcrop study from Maiella Mountain (central Italy). Mar Pet Geol 76:68–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Deng HC, Zhou W, Zhou QM et al (2013) Quantification characterization of the valid natural fractures in the 2nd Xu Member. Xinchang Gas Field Acta Petrol Sin 29(3):1087–1097Google Scholar
  3. Ding WL, Li C, Li CY, Xu C, Jiu K, Zeng W, Wu L (2012) Fracture development in shale and its relationship to gas accumulation. Geosci Front 3(1):97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ding WL, Zhu DW, Cai JJ et al (2013) Analysis of the developmental characteristics and major regulating factors of fractures in marine-continental transitional shale-gas reservoirs: a case study of the Carboniferous-Permian strata in the southeastern Ordos Basin, central China. Mar Pet Geol 48:121–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ding WL, Wang XH, Hu QJ et al (2015a) Progress in tight sandstone reservoir fractures research. Adv Earth Science 30(7):737–750 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Ding WL, Yin S, Wang XH et al (2015b) Assessment method and characterization of tight sandstone gas reservoir fractures. Earth Sci Fro 22(4):173–187 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  7. Duan JB, Li PP, Chen D (2013) Formation and evolution of the reef flat facies lithologic gas reservoir of Changxing Formation in Yuanba Gas Field, Sichuan Basin. Litho Res 25(3):43–47 91 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  8. Fan XY, Kang HT, Gong M et al (2012) Fine calculation method study of crustal stress of high-steep conformation in Northeast Sichuan. J South Petrol Univ: Sci Tech Edi 34(3):41–46Google Scholar
  9. Fan JM, Qu XF, Wang C et al (2016) Natural fracture distribution and a new method predicting effective fractures in tight oil reservoirs of Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 43(5):740–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan CH, Qin QR, Li H et al (2017) Formation stages of structural fractures of Xujiahe Formation in the fault-fold belt of central Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin. Acta Petrol Sin 38(10):1135–1143 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Fan CH, Li H, Zhong C et al (2018) Tectonic fracture stages and evolution model of Longmaxi Formation shale, Dingshan structure, Southeast Sichuan. Acta Petrol Sin 39(4):379–390 (in Chinese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fang HH, Sang SX, Wang JL et al (2017) Simulation of paleotectonic stress fields and distribution prediction of tectonic fractures at the Hudi Coal Mine, Qinshui Basin. Acta Geol Sin (Eng edi) 91(6):2007–2023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ju W, Sun WF (2016) Tectonic fractures in the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of Qingxi Oilfield, Jiuxi Basin, NW China Part one: characteristics and controlling factors. J Pet Sci Eng 146:617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ju W, Sun WF, Hou GT et al (2015) Insights into the tectonic fractures in the Yanchang Formation interbedded sandstone-mudstone of the Ordos Basin based on core data and geomechanical models. Acta Geol Sin (Eng edi) 89(6):1986–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li XG, Xu GQ, Cui YM et al (2013) A new method to qualitatively identify and predict fault-related fracture (FRF). Acta Geol Sin (Eng edi) 87(z1):565–566Google Scholar
  16. Li H, Fan CH, Qin QR et al (2018a) Fracture characteristics and its genesis of tight reservoir in Xujiahe formation, central Yuanba of Sichuan basin. Res Eva Dev 4(2):1–6 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Li H, Tang HM, Qin QR, Fan CH, Han S, Yang C, Zhong C (2018b) Reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon accumulation of Carboniferous volcanic weathered crust of Zhongguai high area in the western Junggar Basin, China. J Cent South Univ 25:2785–2801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu C, Zhang RH, Zhang HL et al (2017) Genesis and reservoir significance of multi-scale natural fractures in Kuqa foreland thrust belt, Tarim Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 44(3):469–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma YS, Cai XY, Zhao PR (2016) Characteristics and formation mechanism of Changxing Formation-Feixianguan Formation reef-shoal reservoirs in Yuanba Gasfield. Petrol Res 2:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohammed SA (2016) Fracture modes in the Silurian Qusaiba Shale Play, Northern Saudi Arabia and their geomechanical implications. Mar Pet Geol 78:312–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nan Y, Liu YQ, Zhou DW et al (2016) Characteristics and origin of amygdale and crack fillers in volcanic rock of Late Carboniferous in Santanghu basin, Xinjiang. Acta Petrol Sin 32(6):1901–1913Google Scholar
  22. Ning CX, Jiang ZX, Gao ZY, Su S, Li T, Wang G, Wang Z, Li Z, Zhu R, Chen L (2017) Characteristics and controlling factors of reservoir space of mudstone and shale in Es3x in the Zhanhua Sag. Mar Pet Geol 88:214–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olson JE, Laubach SE, Lander RH (2009) Natural fracture characterization in tight gas sandstones: integrating mechanics and diagenesis. AAPG Bull 93(11):1535–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Peacocka DCP, Sandersonb DJ, Rotevatna A (2018) Relationships between fractures. J Struct Geol 106:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pireh A, Alavi SA, Ghassemi MR, Shaban A (2015) Analysis of natural fractures and effect of deformation intensity on fracture density in Garau formation for shale gas development within two anticlines of Zagros fold and thrust belt, Iran. J Pet Sci Eng 125:162–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qin QR, Su PD (2006) Classification and prediction of structural fractures types. Nat Gas Ind 26(10):33–36 (172in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Qin LM, Li YJ, Wu HY (2012) Stress Modeling and Well Stability of Well Yuanba 11 in Yuanba Area in Northeastern Sichuan Basin. Sci Tec Rev 30(34):45–50 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  28. Wang Y, Zhang KY, Gan QG (2015) Fracture development characteristics in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, western Sichuan depression (China). J Pet Sci Eng 135:542–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang ZY, Liu C, Zhang YF et al (2016) A study of fracture development, controlling factor and property modeling of deep-lying tight sandstone in Cretaceous thrust belt K region of Kuqa depression. Acta Petrol Sin 32(3):865–876Google Scholar
  30. Wang XL, Qin QR, Fan CH (2017a) Research on comprehensive evaluation for grouting effect of broken and soft floor. Arab J Geosci 10:420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang YM, Wang HK, Zhang CC et al (2017b) Fracture pore evaluation of the Upper Ordovician Wufeng to Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formations in southern Sichuan Basin, SW China. Pet Explor Dev 44(4):531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yin S, Ding WL (2018) Evaluation indexes of coalbed methane accumulation in the strong deformed strike-slip fault zone considering tectonics and fractures: a 3D geomechanical simulation study. Geol Mag 155:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yin S, Ding WL, Zhou W, Shan Y, Xie R, Guo C, Cao X, Wang R, Wang X (2017) In situ stress field evaluation of deep marine tight sandstone oil reservoir: a case study of Silurian strata in northern Tazhong area, Tarim Basin. NW China Mar Petrol Geol 80(1):49–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yin S, Zhao JZ, Wu ZH et al (2018) Strain energy density distribution of a tight gas sandstone reservoir in a low-amplitude tectonic zone and its effect on gas well productivity: a 3D FEM study. J Pet Sci Eng 170:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yue DL, Wu SH, Xu ZY, Xiong L, Chen D, Ji Y, Zhou Y (2018) Reservoir quality, natural fractures, and gas productivity of upper Triassic Xujiahe tight gas sandstones in western Sichuan Basin, China. Mar Pet Geol 89:370–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zeng LB, Li YG (2010) Tectonic fractures in tight gas sandstones of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the western Sichuan Basin, China. Acta Geol Sin (Eng edi) 84(5):1229–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zeng LB, Li XX et al (2009) Fractures in sandstone reservoirs with ultra-low permeability: a case study of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin, China. AAPG Bull 93(4):461–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zeng LB, Jiang JW, Yang YL (2010) Fractures in the low porosity and ultra-low permeability glutenite reservoirs: a case study of the late Eocene Hetaoyuan formation in the Anpeng Oilfield, Nanxiang Basin, China. Mar Pet Geol 27:1642–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang HL, Zhang RH, Yang HJ et al (2012) Quantitative evaluation methods and applications of tectonic fracture developed sand reservoir: cCretaceous example from Kuqa foreland basin. Acta Petrol Sin 28(3):827–835Google Scholar
  40. Zhang LY, Zhou XZ, Ma LC et al (2015) Application of pore evolution and fracture development coupled models in the prediction of reservoir “Sweet Spots” in Tight Sandstones. Acta Geol Sin (Eng edi) 89(3):1051–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhao XY, Zeng LB, Liu ZQ et al (2015) Characteristics of calcareous interbeds and their impact on the distribution of natural fractures in tight sandstone reservoirs. Geol Rev 61(1):163–171 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  42. Zhao XY, Hu XY, Zeng LB et al (2017) Evaluation on the effectiveness of natural fractures in reef-flat facies reservoirs of Changxing Fm in Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin. Nat Gas Ind 37(2):52–61 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  43. Zhao XY, Hu XY, Xiao KH et al (2018) Characteristics and major control factors of natural fractures in carbonate reservoirs of Leikoupo Formation in Pengzhou area, western Sichuan Basin. Oil Gas Geol 37(2):52–61 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and ExploitationSouthwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.School of Geoscience and TechnologySouthwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.Sichuan Tianyi UniversityMianzhuChina

Personalised recommendations