Critical analysis of spatial-temporal morphological characteristic of urban landscape

  • Anugya ShuklaEmail author
  • Kamal Jain
Original Paper


Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) data have been used widely to analyze and study the patterns of urban expansions. Urban expansions are intricate dynamic process associated with landscape transformation and its driving factors. Previous studies mainly focused only on identifying urban change; therefore, in this study, we have developed a spatial-temporal morphological model to identify the pattern of urbanization and driving factors contributing the growth pattern. The primary objective of this study is to identify and analyze the urban sprawl of Lucknow city, India, as a pattern and process. Quantification of urban landscape is performed using remotely sensed temporal satellite images of 1990, 1999, 2009, and 2016 over a period of 26 years. An interlink between spatial metrics, gradient analysis, and density index has been developed to analyze the directional growth of the city. Gradient modeling is performed using moving window analysis on a single grid for quantification of the landscape structure. Multi Ring Buffer (MRB) approach has been deployed to measure the extent and trends of urbanization. The quantification of MRB is performed using Shannon’s entropy estimations. The analysis of spatial data is then carried out by splitting the study area into five circular zones of 2 km each in increasing order of radius. The higher value of Shannon’s entropy index shows a highly coalesced urban center with dispersed growth towards the outskirts. Urban gradient analysis is performed to model the landscape parameters and urban growth morphology in 16 different directions. Total 257 sample points from the city center at the interval of 500 m are overlaid on temporal dataset up to 8 km in 16 different directions. To compute the compactness of urban sprawl for the present scenario, density index is evaluated. The outcome from the study indicates an integrated approach for modeling the urban morphology which illustrates the extent of influencing drivers of urbanization in various directions.


Multi Ring Buffer (MRB) Urban morphology Shannon’s entropy Gradient analysis Landscape Spatial metrics 


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeUttarakhandIndia

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