Numerical modeling technique for groundwater management in Samalut city, Minia Governorate, Egypt

  • Ahmed AbdelhalimEmail author
  • Ahmed Sefelnasr
  • Esam Ismail
S. I. Geology of Africa
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. New Advances and Research Results on the Geology of Africa


The demand for freshwater supplies is progressively ascending owing to the increase of the population expansion and economic growth. Available water resources have been reduced by pollution and over-pumping. Groundwater modeling is a powerful tool for water resources management, groundwater protection, and remediation. The aim of this study is to develop a numerical groundwater flow model for the Quaternary aquifer in Samalut city, Minia Governorate, Egypt. The model is used to determine the hydrogeological conditions of the aquifer, the flow directions as well as calculating the rates of recharge and discharge between surface water and groundwater in the study area. Furthermore, scenarios were designed in the model to assess the response of the aquifer to increase the groundwater extraction in the future. The model was calibrated by trial and error; simulated results were compared to the observed head and contour maps, which were generally in good agreement. No typical steady-state condition is prevailed in the aquifer and groundwater flow directions are toward northeast direction. The River Nile acts as a drain in the study area, while El-Ibrahimiya Canal and Bahr Yusef act as a source of aquifer recharge. The proposed scenarios showed that surface water plays an important role in recharging the aquifer during increasing groundwater extraction. The results showed that the change in the aquifer storage will be decreased from + 48,125 m3/day in the current state (2013) to + 27,134 m3/day and − 869 m3/day when the groundwater extraction is increased by 25% and 50%, respectively.


Groundwater modeling Groundwater management Groundwater budget MODFLOW 


  1. Baalousha H, Mckay G, Haik Y, Siddique A, Koç M, Francis L, Saleem J, Abdulrahim HKM, Al-Adwan A (2013) Fundamentals of groundwater modelling. Jordan J Appl Sci 15:347–360Google Scholar
  2. CONOCO (1987) Geologic map of Egypt. Egyptian General Authority for Petroleum (UNESCO joint map project), 20 sheets, scale 1:500 000. Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  3. Dawoud MA, Ewea HAR (2011) Sustainable development via optimal integration of surface and groundwater in arid environment: Nile River quaternary aquifer case study. J KAU 22:19Google Scholar
  4. Egyptian Meteorological Authority, EMA (2016) Annual meteorological reports. Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  5. El Kashouty M, El Sayed E, Kamel AA (2012) The hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater and surface water in the western part of the River Nile, El Minia district, upper Egypt. Arab J Geosci 5:637–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. El Sayed E (1987) Hydrogeological evaluation of the groundwater resources in Minia district, Egypt. M. Sc. thesis, Faculty of science, Minia University, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  7. Esam E, El-Sayed E, Sakr S, Youssef E (2017) Characteristic of groundwater potentialities in West Nile Valley South, Minia Governorate. Egypt Arabian Journal of Geosciences 10:521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gomma MA (1999) Remarks on the groundwater conditions in Minia area, east of the Nile River, Egypt. Bull Fac Sch Assuit Univ EgyptGoogle Scholar
  9. Kresic N (2006) Hydrogeology and groundwater modeling. CRC pressGoogle Scholar
  10. McDonald MG, Harbaugh AW (1988) A modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model US Geological Survey Reston, VA 6:1Google Scholar
  11. Omara S, Philobbos E, Hanna S (1972) Contribution to the geomorphology and geology of the area east of Minia. Bull Soc Geogr Egypt 45:46Google Scholar
  12. Omara S, Mansour H, Youssef M, Khalifa H (1977) Stratigraphy, paleoenvironment and structural features of the area east of Beni Mazar, upper Egypt. Bull Fac Sci Assiut Univ 6:171–197Google Scholar
  13. Ouda S, Noreldin T and Hosney M (2016) Evapotranspiration under changing climate. Major Crops and Water Scarcity in Egypt, 1–23ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Research Institute for Groundwater, RIGW (2015) Final technical report for the Nile valley regional model. Prepared for NWRP Project, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  15. Sadek M (2001) Isotopic criteria for upward leakage in the alluvial aquifer in north Minia district, Egypt. The Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining authority, 19pGoogle Scholar
  16. Said R (1981) The geological evolution of the River Nile. Elsevier publ. Co., Amsterdam, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  17. Said R (1990) The geology of Egypt. Brookfield, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  18. Salem A (2015) Hydrogeological studies on the shallow aquifers in the area west Samalut, Minia Governorate, Egypt. Egypt J Pure Appl Sci 53:49–60ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Tantawy M (1992) Isotopic and hydrogeochemical applications to the surface and the groundwater assessments in El Minia district, Egypt. Ph. D. thesis, Faculty of Science, Minia University, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  20. Thangarajan M (2007) Groundwater: resource evaluation, augmentation, contamination, restoration, modeling and management. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  21. Wahaab RA, Badawy MI (2004) Water quality assessment of the River Nile system: an overview. Biomed Environ Sci 17:87–100ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Abdelhalim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed Sefelnasr
    • 2
  • Esam Ismail
    • 1
  1. 1.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceMinia UniversityMiniaEgypt
  2. 2.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceAssuit UniversityAssuitEgypt

Personalised recommendations