Structure and fracture-cavity identification of epimetamorphic volcanic-sedimentary rock basement reservoir: a case study from central Hailar Basin, China

  • Juan LiEmail author
  • Guangpo Chen
  • Bin Zhang
  • Liang Hong
  • Qianfeng Han
Original Paper


Taking the epimetamorphic volcanic-sedimentary complex basement in Beier Depression, Hailar Basin, China, as an example, the lithology, diagenesis, reservoir characteristics, and vertical zoning structure division are studied by using core, thin sections, cathodoluminescence, SEM, LSCM, well logging, FMI, diplog, and 3D seismic data. The reservoirs including fractures and cavities are identified and predicted separately under the control of vertical zoning structure, by well logging response, seismic reflection features, and multiseismic attributes. The results show that the assemblage of fine siltstone, tuffaceous sandstone, and tuff is the best lithology assemblage for reservoir development. The basement reservoir structure is divided into four zones, and zone II developing both fractures and pores has the best reservoir quality, followed by zone III having fractures dominated. Fracture and pore-cavity reservoirs have decreasing resistivity, density, and other features in conventional well log, and pore-cavity reservoirs have relatively high amplitude and bead or lenticular-shaped seismic reflection. The seismic attributes of curvature, coherence, and amplitude extracted under the control of specific zonation are effective reservoir prediction methods. Reservoir distribution including fracture and pore-cavity is controlled by the palaeogeomorphology of basement buried hill and fault activity and property. For the buried hills with high palaeogeomorphology and long-term structural activity controlled by main faults, developing high-quality reservoirs of fractures as well as pores, are the optimal targets for basement drilling, in the condition of effective hydrocarbon migration path.


Basement reservoir Structure Identification Fracture-cavity Epimetamorphic rock Hailar Basin 



The authors thank the guidance of Wu Haibo and Peng Wei and the data support for the paper from Daqing Oilfield Exploration and Development Research Institute, Petrochina.


  1. Cuong T, Warren K (2009) Bach Ho Field, a fractured granitic basement reservoir, Cuu Long Basin, offshore SE Vietnam: a “buried-hill” play. J Pet Geol 32(2):129–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dou L, Wang J, Wang R, Wei X, Shrivastava C (2018) Precambrian basement reservoirs: case study from the northern Bongor Basin, the Republic of Chad. AAPG Bull 102(9):1803–1824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fu G, Wu W (2015) Oil-gas accumulation models and their main controlling factors in Wuerxun-Beier Depression. Lithologic Reservoirs 27(1):14–20Google Scholar
  4. Fu X, Chen Z, Yan B, Yang M, Sun Y (2013) Analysis of main controlling factors for hydrocarbon accumulation in central rift zones of the Hailar-Tamtsag Basin using a fault-caprock dual control mode. Sci. China Ser. D Earth Sci. 56:1357–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gao C, Zha M, Zhao X, Peng P (2015) Migration systems and hydrocarbon accumulation models of buried hill reservoirs in Jizhong Depression. Lithologic Reservoirs 27(2):26–30Google Scholar
  6. Guo Z, Ma Y, Liu W, Wang L, Tian J, Zeng X, Ma F (2017) Main factors controlling the formation of basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Qaidam Basin, western China. J Pet Sci Eng 149:244–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. He D, Du X, Li C, Zhang Z (2011) Seismic identification and classification of formations in BZ21-2 buried-hill. Geophys Prospect Pet 50(1):45–50Google Scholar
  8. Kang D, Pang X, Zhang Y (2008) Reservoir properties of Suderte buried hill and main controlling factors, Beir Depression, NE China. Pet Explor Dev 35(2):188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Landes KK (1960) Petroleum resources in basement rock. AAPG Bull 44(10):1682–1691Google Scholar
  10. Li Y, Hou J, Ma X (2016) Data integration in characterizing a fracture-cavity reservoir, Tahe oilfield, Tarim basin, China. Arab J Geosci 9(8):532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li J, Sun S, Chen G, Zhang B, Hong L, He W (2018) Controlling of epimetamorphic rock lithology on basement reservoir and identification of lithological sequence of reservoir in Hailar basin. Lith Reserv 30(4):26–36Google Scholar
  12. Liu J, Steel R, Lin C, Yang H, Yang Y, Peng L, Gong Y, Chu C (2012) Geomorphology control on the development of reservoir depositional systems, Devonian Donghetang Formation in the Tabei Uplift of the Tarim Basin, China. Mar Pet Geol 38(1):177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lu S, Li D (2016) Advances in logging identification of lithology and fracture in metamorphic reservoir. Spec Oil Gas Reserv 23(4):1–6Google Scholar
  14. Luo J, Morad S, Liang Z (2005) Controls on the quality of Archean metamorphic and Jurassic volcanic reservoir rocks from the Xinglongtai buried hill, western depression of Liaohe Basin, China. AAPG Bull 89(10):1319–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ma F, Yan C, Ma D, Le X, Huang C, Shi Y, Xie M (2015) Bedrock gas reservoirs in Dongping area of Qaidam Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42(3):266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Meng W, Chen Z, Guo Y, Gao X, Hui X (2009) Exploration theories and practices of buried-hill reservoirs: a case from Liaohe Depression. Pet Explor Dev 36(2):136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meng Q, Wan C, Zhu D, Zhang Y, Ge W, Wu F (2013) Age assignment and geological significance of the “Budate Group” in the Hailar Basin. Sci China Earth Sci 56(6):970–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meng Q, Liu Y, Wu H, Li J, Liu H (2014) Formation and accumulation rules of oil and gas in middle fault depression belt of Hailar-Tamtsag Basin. J Jilin Univ (Earth Sci Ed) 44(6):1737–1746Google Scholar
  19. Nelson RA, Moldovany EP, Matcek CC (2000) Production characteristics of the fractured reservoirs of the La Paz Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. AAPG Bull 84(11):1791–1809Google Scholar
  20. Nguyen V, Hwang S, Jang S, Hoang ND, Pham HG (2018) Well path design by integrating the analysis of wireline logs and the interpretation of seismic data for a fractured basement reservoir in Cuu Long Basin, Viet Nam. Mar Pet Geol 93:315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pan C (1982) Petroleum in basement rock. AAPG Bull 66(10):1597–1643Google Scholar
  22. Putra H, Muhammad F, Suci HQ, Mohammad R, Beiruny S (2018) Naturally fractured basement reservoir potential quantification from fracture model and petrophysical analysis by leveraging geostatistics and seismic interpretation: a case study in Jabung Block, South Sumatra Basin. Energ Geotechn, SEG, Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering. Springer, Cham, 360–368Google Scholar
  23. Rohrman M (2007) Prospectively of volcanic basins: trap delineation and acreage de-risking. AAPG Bull 91(6):915–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sircar A (2004) Hydrocarbon production from fractured basement formations. Curr Sci 87(2):147–1511Google Scholar
  25. Tan MT, Ha MT, Marfurt KJ, Hieu NT, Hanh NT (2016) Enhancement of seismic data processing and interpretation of fracture zones on the upper part of granitic basement in Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam. Acta Geophys 64(6):2214–2231Google Scholar
  26. Tong K, Zhao C, Lv Z, Zhang Y, Zheng J, Pan L (2012) Reservoir evaluation and fracture characterization of the metamorphic buried hill reservoir in Bohai Bay. Pet Explor Dev 39(1):56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang Y, Zhang J, Zhang H (2007) Reservoir characteristics and exploration method of metamorphic rock in Budate Group in Beier Rift of Hailaer Basin. Pet Geol & Oilfield Dev Daq 26(2):23–26Google Scholar
  28. Wang J, Duan S, Wang T, Jin Z, Lei M, Guo B, Fang J (2010) Geophysical response characteristics and exploration trend for buried-hill reservoir in Beier Depression. Oil Geophys Prospect 45(5):731–736Google Scholar
  29. Ye T, Wei A, Zhu C, Wang Y, Gao K, Zeng J (2017) Characteristics of the basement reformed volcanic edifice in Bohai Sea and its implication for hydrocarbon enrichment. Pet Res 2(4):336–346Google Scholar
  30. Yuan J (2016) The weathering characteristics of Budate buried hills and reservoir classification of Sudheer oilfield. J Yangtze Univ: Nat Sci Ed 13(23):15–18Google Scholar
  31. Zhang X (2009) Logging fracture prediction in the reservoir of buried-hill, Hailaer Basin. Fault-Block Oil & Gas Field 16(1):118–123Google Scholar
  32. Zhang Y, Liu P, Qi Q, Sun Y (2012) Study on fault associated crack development characteristics and simulation experiment about the buried hill reservoir in the Beier Sag, Hailer Basin. Chin J Geol 47(4):1176–1187Google Scholar
  33. Zhang J, Li S, Fu L, Long L, Yao J, Lu Y (2014) Characteristics of inner buried hill clastic reservoirs and their main controlling factors in Kongnan area, Huanghua Depression. Lithologic Reservoirs 26(6):50–56Google Scholar
  34. Zou H, Zhao C, Yin Z (2015) Development and distribution of the metamorphite-weathering crust and its feature of reservoir-property for the JZS buried hill, Liaodongwan area. Nat Gas Geosci 26(4):599–607Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Guangpo Chen
    • 2
  • Bin Zhang
    • 2
  • Liang Hong
    • 2
  • Qianfeng Han
    • 2
  1. 1.Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and ResourcesChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development-NorthwestLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations