Petrography and geochemistry of the Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks from the Batal Formation of Spiti Basin: implication on provenance

  • Shivani PandeyEmail author
  • Suraj K. Parcha
  • Pankaj K. Srivastava
Original Paper


The petrography and geochemistry of the siliciclastic rocks of Batal Formation, Spiti Basin were studied to define the provenance, tectonic setting, and depositional environment. Petrographical studies show that the percentage of quartz in sandstone varies from 70 to 80%, whereas in siltstone and shale, it varies from 50 to 60%. Similar pattern of chondrite-normalized REE, with enriched LREE, depleted HREE, and a negative Eu anomaly, suggests that the source rock is of felsic type. Significant correlation between Zr versus Yb and ΣHREE indicates that these sediments are influenced by sediment recycling. The Ni/Co and Cu/Zn ratios suggest that sediments were deposited under low to moderate oxygenated conditions, while the CIA values and A-CN-K plot reflect moderate to intense weathered source area with the presence of clay minerals derived during the cold period. The major element–based multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams suggest an active marginal setting for the sediments of Batal Formation. Further, the discrimination diagrams equally suggest that these sediments were derived from sedimentary provenance and to some extent from the felsic igneous provenance.


Neoproterozoic Tectonic setting Provenance Depositional environment 



We are thankful to the Director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, for providing facilities and giving permission to publish this work. We are highly thankful to Dr. Hakim Rai for providing his valuable suggestions and scientific inputs to shape the manuscript in the present form. The authors are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful reviews.

Funding information

This work was carried out under the Project SR/FTP/ES-111/20014 funded by the Science and Engineering Board, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shivani Pandey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suraj K. Parcha
    • 1
  • Pankaj K. Srivastava
    • 2
  1. 1.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehra DunIndia
  2. 2.University of JammuJammuIndia

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