Genesis of the Angeer Yinwula Pb–Zn deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: constraints from fluid inclusions, C–H–O–S–Pb isotope systematics, and zircon U–Pb geochronology

  • Han-Lun Liu
  • Yi Han
  • Ke-Yong Wang
  • Wen Li
  • Jian Li
  • Wen-Yan Cai
  • Li-Juan Fu
Original Paper


The Angeer Yinwula Pb–Zn deposit of Inner Mongolia, China, is located in the Erlianhot–Dongwuqi metallogenic belt, which is considered to be the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We used the ore geology, fluid inclusion, isotopes, and zircon U–Pb geochronology to elucidate the genesis and tectonic setting of the deposit. The deposit belongs to the moderate-temperature hydrothermal-vein type, and most of the ore bodies occurred in the quartz diorite intrusions and silty slate country rocks of the Devonian Angeer Yinwula Group. Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometry results show that the inclusions that developed in the different mineralization stages changed from the LV type (vapor-rich two-phase) + S type (daughter-mineral-bearing three-phase) + VL type (liquid-rich two-phase) to the VL type + LV type and eventually evolved into the VL type, and the ore-forming fluids changed from a moderate-temperature and moderate- to high-salinity, boiling fluid system to a low-temperature and low-salinity H2O–NaCl system. The isotope (C, H, O, S) characteristics suggest that the ore-forming fluids were derived from a magmatic source, and the lead was derived from a deep-seated mantle-derived magma and also included some crustal material. The LA–ICP–MS zircon U–Pb age of the quartz diorite is 152.0 ± 1.5 Ma, which is the best estimate for the age of mineralization of the deposit. Overall, we suggest that the deposit formed in a Late Jurassic Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction setting, although this hypothesis needs to be further tested by conducting computational simulations in the field of emerging computational geosciences.


Fluid inclusions Geochemistry Zircon U–Pb geochronology Angeer Yinwula Pb–Zn deposit Inner Mongolia 



We are grateful to the staff of the Analytical Laboratory at the Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), for their advice and assistance in isotopic analysis. We thank the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, for their assistance during zircon U–Pb dating by LA–ICP–MS.

Funding information

This work was supported financially by the Shandong Gold Group (project MJDK2016005).


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© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Han-Lun Liu
    • 1
  • Yi Han
    • 2
  • Ke-Yong Wang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wen Li
    • 2
  • Jian Li
    • 1
  • Wen-Yan Cai
    • 1
  • Li-Juan Fu
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Earth SciencesJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Inner Mongolia Shandong Gold Geological Minerals Survey Co., LtdChifengChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources (GPMR)China University of GeosciencesWuhanChina

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