Impact assessment of coal mining on river water and groundwater and its interaction through hydrological, isotopic characteristics, and simulation flow modeling

  • Ratnakar DhakateEmail author
  • Durgaprasad Modi
  • Velidi Venkata Surya Gurunadha Rao
Original Paper


Impact assessment of coal mining of Gare IV/6 Coal Block (GCB) on river water (Kelo River) and groundwater and the interaction between them were studied through hydrological studies like water-level monitoring, short and long-term river flow measurements, isotopic characteristics, and groundwater flow modeling. The hydrological study reveals that the groundwater flow is towards the Kelo River and the river is acting as effluent in nature. The flow direction is parallel to Kelo River in the downstream of the GCB. The isotopic study suggests that the Kelo River water is enriched with δ 18O/16O ratio as compared to watershed samples. Flow modeling suggests that the Kelo River, which is adjacent to the boundary of GCB, may contribute 88.38 m3/day of groundwater. The groundwater effluence forms a meager component of the total groundwater effluence estimated for the entire length of the Kelo River passing through the study area. Based on the groundwater flow model results it is suggested that the proposed mining operation in GCB will not have any impact on the Kelo River water flow. The suspected seepage from the Kelo River flooding on the GCB is unlikely as the hydraulic gradient is towards the Kelo River. It is suggested to have a buffer zone and an embankment between Kelo River and GCB to prevent flooding from river water breaching. The present study provides an overall understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in and around mining area which will help in safe mining operations so that any hazard or threat to the local community may be prevented.


Groundwater (GW) Surface water (SW) Coal mining Isotope studies And groundwater flow modeling 



Authors express their gratitude to Director, CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad, for the encouragement, guidance, and permission to publish this work with publication no. NGRI/LIB/2018/Pub-63. We wish to place on record our sincere thanks to Dr. I. N. Rao, AVP (Environment), M/s. Jindal Steel & Power Ltd., New Delhi, for pursuing the study. We are also thankful to Shri Satya Prakash, Vice President, Mines, M/s. Jindal Steel & Power Ltd., Raigarh, for assigning work to the CSIR-NGRI. Authors are thankful to Shri. Sanjay Shrivastava, General Manager, M/s. Jindal Steel & Power Ltd., Tamnar, for the logistic support and services provided to the field teams during field investigations. Authors are thankful to Editor-in-Chief for his encouragement and support. The anonymous reviewers have suggested their constructive comments to improve the article. The authors acknowledge all of them.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ratnakar Dhakate
    • 1
    Email author
  • Durgaprasad Modi
    • 1
  • Velidi Venkata Surya Gurunadha Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)HyderabadIndia

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