Potential nitrogen fixation changes under different land uses as influenced by seasons and biochar amendments
Soil nutrient dynamics, potential biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) changes, and their relations were studied using four land use types. Further, we investigated BNF changes in the presence of biochar in soils. Soil samples were collected from arable, vineyard, grassland, and forest soils during four seasons, and analyzed for abiotic contents of total nitrogen, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, ammonium lactate (AL)-soluble K2O, P2O5, and soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations. Potential N2 fixation was measured as ethylene (C2H4) production from acetylene (C2H2) reduction (ARA). The study focused on the changes in ARA when different types of biochars (T600, T650, and T700) were applied to soil samples in different amounts (0, 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0% wt wt−1) under laboratory conditions. We found strong correlations between soil chemical parameters and ARA values, especially in the case of soil pH, total N, SOC, and P2O5 contents. In the case of arable soil, the ARA measurements were up to 227 times higher compared to grassland and forest samples. Biochar application affected N2-fixing microbial responses among land use types, most notably decreases in arable lands and forest soils. We found that a high amount of biochar added to the soils can greatly suppress N2-fixing activities. Our results highlight the strong relationship between soil nutrient changes and the intensity of anthropogenic influence.
KeywordsArable BNF ARA Forest Grassland Vineyard
This material is based upon work supported by the Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA/NKFI) project OTKA PD-116157. This paper was also supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
- Bezdicek DF, Kennedy AC (1998) Microorganisms in action. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- DeLuca TH, MacKenzie MD, Gundale MJ (2009) Biochar effects on soil nutrient transformations. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science and technology. Earthscan, London, pp 251–270Google Scholar
- Mia S, van Groenigen JW, van de Voorde TFJ, Orama NJ, Bezemer TM, Mommer L, Jeffery S (2014) Biochar application rate affects biological nitrogen fixation in red clover conditional on potassium availability. Agric Ecosyst Environ 191:83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mulongoy K (1995) Technical paper 2: biological nitrogen fixation. In: Tripathl BR, Psychas PJ (eds) Source book for alley farming research. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, p. 150-156. http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/x5546e/x5546e05.htm#2.4%20factors%20limiting%20biological%20nitrogen%20fixation. Accessed 30 July 2018
- Ouyang L, Wang F, Tang J, Yu L, Zhang R (2013) Effects of biochar amendment on soil aggregates and hydraulic properties. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13:991–1002Google Scholar
- Schiewer S, Horel A (2017) Biodiesel addition influences biodegradation rates of fresh and artificially weathered diesel fuel in Alaskan sand. J Cold Reg Eng 31:04017012. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CR.1943-5495.0000138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steiner C, Teixeira WG, Lehmann J, Nehls T, de Macêdo JLV, Blum WEH, Zech W (2007) Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil. Plant Soil 291:275–290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9193-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thies JE, Rillig M (2009) Characteristics of biochar: biological properties. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science and technology. Earthscan, London, pp 85–105Google Scholar
- Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler DW, Schlesinger WH, Tilman DG (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0737:HAOTGN]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Welsh DT, Bourgués S, de Wit R, Herbert RA (1996) Seasonal variations in nitrogen-fixation (acetylene reduction) and sulphate-reduction rates in the rhizosphere of Zostera noltii: nitrogen fixation by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Mar Biol 125:619–628. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00349243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar