GIS-based DRASTIC model for groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment in the Peshawar District, Pakistan

  • Syed AdnanEmail author
  • Javed Iqbal
  • Matti Maltamo
  • Rubén Valbuena
Original Paper


Groundwater is the most economic natural source of drinking in urban and rural areas which are degraded due to high population growth and increased industrial development. We applied a GIS-based DRASTIC model in a populated urban area of Pakistan (Peshawar) to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution. Six input parameters—depth to phreatic/groundwater level, groundwater recharge, aquifer material, soil type, slope, and hydraulic conductivity—were used in the model to generate the groundwater vulnerable zones. Each parameter was divided into different ranges or media types, and ratings R = 1 – 10 were assigned to each factor where 1 represented the very low impact on pollution potential and 10 represented very high impact. Weight multipliers W = 1 – 5 were also used to balance and enhance the importance of each factor. The DRASTIC model scores obtained varied from 47 to 147, which were divided into three different zones: low, moderate, and high vulnerability to pollution. The final results indicate that about 31.22, 39.50, and 29.27% of the total area are under low, moderate, and high vulnerable zones, respectively. Our method presents a very simple and robust way to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution and helps the decision-makers to select appropriate landfill sites for waste disposals, and manage groundwater pollution problems efficiently.


Groundwater pollution Pollution potential Prioritization of risk areas GIS for groundwater Groundwater contamination 


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Forest SciencesUniversity of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland
  2. 2.National University of Sciences and TechnologyInstitute of GISIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Plant Sciences, Forest Ecology and ConservationUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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