Morphometric analysis of Chattian–Early Aquitanian Miogypsinidae from Iraq and their stratigraphic distribution in the Arabian Tethys

  • Qahtan A. M. Al NuaimyEmail author
Original Paper


A biometric study of Chattian–Early Aquitanian taxa from shallow marine transgressive carbonate deposits in the Oligo-Miocene sedimentary basin of Kirkuk, Iraq, provides new insight into their taxonomy, stratigraphy, and palaeobiogeography. Their evolution is based on a distinct change in general nepiont morphology, which agrees with the principle of nepionic acceleration. Each Miogypsinoides group is represented by more than one lineage. We demonstrate for the first time the parallel evolution of Miogypsina and Miogypsinoides in the late Chattian of north-eastern Iraq. We assign specimens into two lineage groups: Miogypsinoides formosensis of the Late Chattian, with smaller embryon and longer post-embryonic spirals, which evolved into Miogypsinoides bantamensis of the Early Aquitanian; and Miogypsinoides sivasensis, with shorter spirals and larger embryon, originally found in late Chattian to Early Aquitanian deposits. This group evolved into large embryon and longer post-embryonic spiral specimens of the upper Azkand Formation, assigned to Miogypsinoides dehaartii and associated with Miogypsina gunteri-basraensis and M. gunteri due to their peculiar morphological features. Miogypsina specimens are related to Miogypsina basraensis, which have much smaller embryon dimensions. This part of the sequence corresponds to Ms. formosensis and is overlain by a Miogypsina ex. interc. gunteri-basraensis succession, a composite species that evolved to Miogypsina gunteri, the most common Miogypsinids taxon in the carbonate upper Azkand Formation, thereby acting as a reference for the evolution of this taxon and its transition to M. ex. interc. tani-gunteri. Miogypsinoides evolution in the Iraqi sedimentary basin is similar to Western Tethys evolution yet differs from Indo-Pacific evolution.


Northern Iraq Miogypsinids Chattian–Early Aquitanian Morphometric analysis 


  1. Abid AA (1997) Biostratigraphy and microfacies of the late Oligocene-Miocene formations center and North Iraq (unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Arabic), College of Science, Baghdad University, p. 258Google Scholar
  2. Adams CG (1984) Neogene larger foraminifera, evolutionary and geological events in the context of datum planes. In: Ikebe N, Tsuchi R (eds) Pacific Neogene datum planes. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 47–67Google Scholar
  3. Al-Eisa MA (1992) The two depositional subcycles of Early Miocene, around Kirkuk field, North Iraq. Iraqi. Geol J 25(1):41–58 (in Arabic)Google Scholar
  4. AL-Guburi HMQ, El-Eisa RM (2002) The stratigraphy and depositional environment of Paleogene–Lower Neogene subsurface sequence in the area between Bai Hassan and Al-Qayarah oil fields. 5th Iraqi Geological Congress. BaghdadGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Hashimi HA and Amer RM (1985) Tertiary microfacies of Iraq. Published and printed by D. G. S. M. I. Baghdad. 159 Plate, p. 56Google Scholar
  6. Al-Omari FS, Sadek K (1972) Occurrence of Miogypsina (s.s.) in Lower Fars Formation from Northern Iraq (Bashiqa area). J Geol Soc Iraq 5:313Google Scholar
  7. Al-Omari FS and Sadek K (1975) Contribution to the Miocene of Northern Iraq by means of Miogypsinoides. Revista Espanaola. de Micropaleontologia, Numero, espessial, enero: 37–42Google Scholar
  8. Amato V, Drooger CW (1969) How to measure the angle in the Miogypsinidae. Rev Esp Micropaleontol 1:19–24Google Scholar
  9. Bakkal KK, Al Ghreri MFT (1993) Sedimentological and paleontological study of Oligocene–Miocene boundary basal conglomerate unit, west of Iraq. J Sci Nature 2(1):22–27Google Scholar
  10. Bellen RC (1956) The stratigraphy of the main limestone of the Kirkuk, Bai Hassan and Qarah Chauq Dagh structures in North Iraq. J Pet 42(393):233–263Google Scholar
  11. Bellen RC, Dunnington HV, Wetzel R (1959) Lexique Stratigraphique International Asie, Fascicule l0a, Iraq-Paris Centre National de la Recherche Scientfique, Buday, p 333Google Scholar
  12. de Bock JF (1976) Studies on some Miogypsinoides-Miogypsina s.s. associations with special reference to morphological features. Scr Geol 36:1–137Google Scholar
  13. Brönnimann P (1940) Über die Tertiären Orbitoididen und die Miogypsiniden von Nordwest-Marokko. Schweizerischen Palaeontologischen Abhandlungen 63(1):1–113Google Scholar
  14. Buday T (1980) The regional geology of Iraq.Vol.1: Stratigraphy and Paleogeography. Publications of GEOSURV, Baghdad, p. 445Google Scholar
  15. Cahuzac B, Poignant A (1997) Essai de biozonation de l’Oligo-Miocène dans les bassins européens à l’aide des grands foraminifères néritiques. Bulletin de la Societé géologique de France 168:155–169Google Scholar
  16. Cole WS (1938) Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two deep wells in Florida. Tallahassee: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 16:73Google Scholar
  17. Ctyroky P, Karim SA (1971) Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Oligocene and Miocene strata near Anah. Euphrates valley. Manuscript report, Geosurv, BaghdadGoogle Scholar
  18. Defrance MJL (1822) Lenticulites. In: Cuvier, M. F., Ed., Dictionnairedes Sciences naturelles, 25 (1aa-1eo): 425–453. Paris: Levrault F. G., Strasbourg et Le Normant. Edgell nederlandse akademie van wetenschappen. Series B. Palaeontology, geology, physics, chemistry, anthropology. 89:135–148Google Scholar
  19. Ditmar V and Iraqi-soviet team (1971) Geological conditions and hydrocarbon prospects of the Republic of Iraq (northern and central parts). Manuscript report. INOC Library, BaghdadGoogle Scholar
  20. Dizer A (1962) Foraminifera of the Miocene of the Sivas Basin (Turkey). Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de Université d’Istanbul 27:49–83Google Scholar
  21. Drooger CW (1952) Study of American Miogypsinidae. PhD dissertation, University Utrecht, pp. 80Google Scholar
  22. Drooger CW (1963) Evolutionary trends in the Miogypsinidae. In: Koenigswald GHR, von Emeis JD, Buning WL, Wagner CW (eds) Evolutionary trends in foraminifera. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 315–349Google Scholar
  23. Drooger CW (1993) Radial foraminifera: morphometrics and evolution. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeling Natuurkunde 41:1–242Google Scholar
  24. Drooger CW, Freudenthal T (1964) Association of Miogypsina and Lepidocyclina at some European localities. Eclogae Geol Helv 57:509–528Google Scholar
  25. Drooger CW and Laagland H (1986) Larger foraminiferal zonation of the European-Mediterranean Oligocene. Proceedings of the KoninklijkeGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferrero Mortara E (1987) Miogypsinidi della serie Oligo-Miocenica della collina di Torino (Italia nord-Occidentale). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 26:119–150Google Scholar
  27. Ghafor IM (2004) Biometric analysis of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) and Miogypsinides from Baba and Azkand formations (Oligocene-Miocene) in Kirkuk area, Iraq. (Ph.D Thesis), College of Science, Sulaimani University, Kurdistan, p. 159Google Scholar
  28. Ghafor IM, Muhammed QA (2005) Evolutionary aspect of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) from Baba and Azkand Formation (Oligocene-Miocene) in Kirkuk area, Iraq. Iraqi jour. Earth Sci 5(2):19–31Google Scholar
  29. Hadad NH (1991) Biostratigraphic studies for tertiary formations in some oilfields in the area of N.O.C. Kirkuk Office, unpublished (In Arabic)Google Scholar
  30. Harzhauser M, Piller WE, Steininger FF (2002) Circum-Mediterranean oligo-Miocene biogeographic evolution: the gastropods’s point of view. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 183(1-2):103–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hay JT and Hart RE (1959) Final report on well Anah-2, M.P.C. report, I.N.O.C. library, no. FWR7, BaghdadGoogle Scholar
  32. Hensen SRF (1937) Larger foraminifera from Aintab, Turkish Suryia. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae,30:45–47Google Scholar
  33. I.O.C. STAFFS (1988) Geological studies for Tertiary Oilfields in Khabaz Oilfield, N.O.C.,Kirkuk, unpublished (In Arabic)Google Scholar
  34. Jassim SZ and Goff JC (2006) Geology of Iraq, First edition, Czech Republic, p. 314Google Scholar
  35. Lawa FA, Ghafur AA (2015) Sequence stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the prolific late Eocene,Oligocene and early Miocene carbonates from Zagros fold-thrust belt in Kurdistan region. Arab J Geosci 8(10):8143–8174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Majid AH and Veizer J (1986) Deposition and chemical diagenesis of tertiary carbonates, Kirkuk oil field, Iraq, AAPG, Bull., 70:6, Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. Muhammed QA (1983) Biostratigraphy of Kirkuk Group Formations in Kirkuk and Bai-Hassan areas. (unpublished M.Sc Thesis), College of Science, Baghdad University, p. 112Google Scholar
  38. Muhammed QA, Ghafor IM (2008) Biometric analysis of Miogypsinidae and their taxonomic significance from Azkand Formation (Oligocene-Miocene) in Kirkuk area, Iraq. Tikrit J Pure Sci 13(1):198–213Google Scholar
  39. de Mulder EFJ (1975) Microfauna and sedimentary-tectonic history of the oligo-Miocene of the Ionian Islands and western Epirus (Greece). Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins 13:1–140Google Scholar
  40. Özcan E, Less GY, Baydogan E (2009) Regional implications of biometric analysis of lower Miocene larger foraminifera from Central Turkey. Micropaleontology 55(6):559–588Google Scholar
  41. Özcan E, György Less GY, Beke MB, Kollányi K (2010) Oligocene hyaline larger foraminifera from Keleresdere Section (Mus, EasternTurkey). Micropaleontology 56(5):465–493Google Scholar
  42. Raju DSN (1974) Study of Indian Miogypsinidae. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins 9:1–148Google Scholar
  43. Rögl F (1998) Palaeogeographic considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 99A:279–310Google Scholar
  44. Sacco F (1893) Sur quelques Tinoporinae du mioce de Turin. Bull Soc Belge GeolPal & Hydr 7:204–207Google Scholar
  45. Schüttenhelm RTE (1976) History and modes of Miocene carbonate deposition in the interior of the piedmont basin, NW Italy. Utrecht Micropalentological Bulletin 14:1–207Google Scholar
  46. Sharland PR, Archer R, Casey DM, Davies RB, Hall SH, Heward AP, Horbury AD, Simmons MD (2001): Arabian plate sequence stratigraphy. GeoArabia, special publication, Gulf Petrol. Ink, Bahrain, p. 321Google Scholar
  47. Tan Sin Hok (1932) On the Cycloclypeus Carpenter. Part 1, and an appendix on the Heterostegines of Tjimanggoe, S.Bantam, Java. Zwei Dienst van den Mijnbouw in Nederlandsch-Indië 19:1–194Google Scholar
  48. Vaughan TW (1928) Species of large arenaceous and orbitoidal Foraminifera from the Tertiary deposits of Jamaica: Jour Paleontology 1(4):pp. 277–298, pls. 43–50Google Scholar
  49. Vlerk IM, Vander (1959) Modificationdel’ontogénèsependant l’évolution des lépidocyclines. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 7:669–673Google Scholar
  50. Wildenborg AFB (1991) Evolutionary aspects of the Miogypsinidsin the Oligo-Miocene carbonates near Mineo (Sicily). Utrecht Micropaleontol Bull 41:1–139Google Scholar
  51. Yabe H, Hanzawa S (1928) Tertiary foraminiferaous rocks of Taiwan (Formosa). Imperial Academy of Tokyo, Proceedings 4:533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technical CollegeNorthern Technical UniversityKirkukIraq

Personalised recommendations