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Geochemical characteristics of the Arabshah kaolin deposit, Takab geothermal field, NW Iran

  • Ali Abedini
  • Ali Asghar Calagari
Original Paper

Abstract

The Arabshah kaolin deposit (Takab geothermal field, NW Iran) is the product of alteration of Miocene dioritic rocks. According to mineralogical data, the rock-forming minerals in this deposit include kaolinite, quartz, muscovite-illite, pyrophyllite, accompanied by lesser amounts of rutile, chlorite, anatase, albite, gypsum, nontronite, and pyrite. Consideration of elemental ratios and geochemical indices such as TiO2, Nb + Cr, Ti + Fe, Sr + Ba, and La + Ce + Y demonstrated that both hypogene and supergene processes played a significant role in the development of this deposit. The mass change calculations revealed that elements like Zr, Ga, Hf, REEs, and Th which are normally immobile in ordinary alteration processes had both incremental and decremental trends during the development of this deposit. The Eu and Ce anomaly values (normalized to chondrite) in kaolinized samples vary within the range of 0.65–1.13 and 0.91–1.05, respectively. It seems that the variation of negative Eu anomaly values was controlled by kaolinization of feldspars by hypogene solutions and by scavenging of this element by Fe oxides and hydroxides (formed during oxidation of hypogene pyrite by supergene solutions). Variation of Ce anomalies also unravels the effective role of reducing hypogene fluids and to some extent of supergene solutions during kaolinization. Combination of the results obtained from mineralization considerations, mass change calculations of elements, and correlation coefficients illustrate that distribution and concentration of major, minor, and rare earth elements during kaolinization at Arabshah were affected by the function of factors such as changes in physico-chemical conditions of altering solutions (e.g., Eh and pH), adsorption, accessibility to complex-forming ligands, water-rock ratios, existing in resistant (to alteration) mineral phases, and scavenging by Fe and Mn oxides.

Keywords

Diorite Kaolinization Elemental distribution Arabshah Takab Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was fully funded by the Research Bureau of Urmia University. Therefore, we would like to acknowledge the generous financial contribution to this work by the authorities of this bureau. Our gratitude is further expressed to Prof. Abdullah M. Al-Amri, and two anonymous reviewers for reviewing the manuscript and making critical comments and valuable suggestions.

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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geology Department, Faculty of SciencesUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural SciencesUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

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