Optimization of chlorination boosters in drinking water distribution network for Al-Khobar City in Saudi Arabia

  • Muhammad Nadeem Sharif
  • Ashraf Farahat
  • Muhammad A. Al-Zahrani
  • Nilufar Islam
  • Manuel J. Rodriguez
  • Rehan Sadiq
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Water Resources in Arid Areas


Water quality management in distribution networks is directly related to spatial distribution of chlorine boosters and its dosages. Water chlorination is essential to reduce the effects of bacterial and other microbiological contaminants. A higher dosage of chlorine generates harmful by-products in addition to changes in drinking water’s taste and odor. The optimization of chlorine dosage is necessary to decrease the microbial contaminants that affect water quality. Once the chlorine threshold is determined for microbial contaminant, it will help decision makers suggest optimal values. These decisions can rely on the estimated water quality index (WQI). WQI is an index to evaluate water quality and can be linked to adequate residual chlorine with optimal booster dosage, numbers, and locations in water distribution network (WDN). The city of Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia’s WDN was selected to validate the application of this study. Based on geographic location, the city Al-Khobar water network was divided into five zones. The initial temporal and spatial analysis pointed out poor water quality zones. EPANET, a modeling and simulating software, was applied to evaluate the WQI. Those EPANET results were then integrated with an optimization model. The optimization model suggested new chlorine booster locations to improve water quality in the city of Al-Khobar water distribution network.


Water quality index (WQI) Chlorination EPANET Water distribution system (WDN) 


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Nadeem Sharif
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ashraf Farahat
    • 1
    • 3
  • Muhammad A. Al-Zahrani
    • 4
  • Nilufar Islam
    • 2
  • Manuel J. Rodriguez
    • 5
  • Rehan Sadiq
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Applied and Supporting StudiesKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of British Columbia, Okanagan CampusKelownaCanada
  3. 3.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringWater Research Group, King Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.École supérieure d’aménagement du territoire et développement régionalUniversité LavalQuebecCanada

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