Groundwater potential assessment in a sedimentary terrain, southwestern Nigeria

  • Ahzegbobor P. Aizebeokhai
  • Kehinde D. Oyeyemi
  • Emmanuel S. Joel
Original Paper


Geoelectrical resistivity techniques are increasingly being applied in addressing a wide range of hydrological, environmental, and geotechnical problems. This is due to their effectiveness in near-surface characterization. In the present study, a suite of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) was integrated with 2D geoelectrical resistivity and time-domain induced polarization (IP) imaging to characterize the near-surface and delineate the underlying aquifer in a sedimentary terrain. The geophysical survey was conducted as part of preliminary studies to evaluate the potential of groundwater resource in Iyana-Iyesi and Canaan Land area of Ota, southwestern Nigeria. A high-yield confined sandy aquifer overlain by a low-yield aquitard was delineated; overlying the aquitard is a very resistive and thick layer that is predominantly composed of kaolinitic swelling clay intercalated with phosphate mineral.


Groundwater investigation Resistivity and IP imaging Near-surface geophysics Subsurface characterization 



The authors wish to thank Covenant University Management for providing the resources to conduct this study. Our profound appreciation goes to following undergraduate students who helped with the field data collection: Nelson-Atuonwu Cherish, Liadi Esther, Shotuyo Yewade, Lesinwa Fortune, Ijioma Nanna, Utor Joy, Tucker Miata, Uye Perpetual, and Ukabam Chukwuemeka.


  1. Amidu SA, Olayinka AI (2006) Environmental assessment of sewage disposal systems using 2D electrical resistivity imaging and geochemical analysis: a case study from Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Environ Eng Geosci 7(3):261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aizebeokhai AP, Alile OM, Kayode JS, Okonkwo FC (2010a) Geophysical investigation of some flood prone areas in Ota, southwestern Nigeria. Am-Eurasian J Sci Res 5(4):216–229Google Scholar
  3. Aizebeokhai AP, Olayinka AI, Singh VS (2010b) Application of 2D and 3D geoelectrical resistivity imaging for engineering site investigation in a crystalline basement terrain, southwestern Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci 61(7):1481–1492. doi: 10.1007/s12665-010-0474-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aizebeokhai AP, Oyebanjo OA (2013) Application of vertical electrical soundings to characterize aquifer potential in Ota, Southwestern Nigeria. Int J Phys Sci 8(46):2077–2085Google Scholar
  5. Aizebeokhai AP, Oyeyemi KD (2014) The use of multiple-gradient array for geoelectrical resistivity and induced polarization imaging. J Appl Geophys 111:364–376. doi: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billman HG (1992) Offshore stratigraphy and paleontology of Dahomey (Benin) embayment. NAPE Bull 70(2):121–130Google Scholar
  7. Chambers JE, Kuras O, Meldrum PI, Ogilvy RD, Hollands J (2006) Electrical resistivity tomography applied to geologic, hydrogeologic and engineering investigations at a former waste-disposal site. Geophysics 71(6):B231–B239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chambers JE, Wilkinson PB, Kuras O, Ford JR, Gunn DA, Meldrum PI, Pennington CVI, Weller AI, Hobbs PRN, Ogilvy RD (2011) Three-dimensional geophysical anatomy of an active landslide in Lias group mudrocks, Cleveland Basin, UK. Geomorphology 125(4):472–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandra S, Ahmed A, Ram A, Dewandel B (2008) Estimation of hard rock aquifers hydraulic conductivity from geoelectrical measurements: a theoretical development with field application. J Hydrol 357:218–227. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dahlin T, Bernstone C, Loke MH (2002) A 3D resistivity investigation of a contaminated site at lernacken in Sweden. Geophysics 60(6):1682–1690Google Scholar
  11. Dahlin T, Loke MH (1998) Resolution of 2D Wenner resistivity imaging as assessed by numerical modelling. J Appl Geophys 38(4):237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Day-Lewis FD, Singha K, Binley AM (2005) Applying petrophysical models to radar travel time and electrical resistivity tomograms: resolution-dependent limitations. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 110:B08206. doi: 10.1029/2004JB003569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gebhardt H, Adekeye OA, Akande SO (2010) Late Paleocene to initial Eocene thermal maximum foraminifera biostratigarphy and paleoecology of the Dahomey Basin, southwestern Nigeria. Gjahrbuch Der Geologischem Bundesantalt 150:407–419Google Scholar
  14. Griffiths DH, Barker RD (1993) Two dimensional resistivity imaging and modelling in areas of complex geology. J Appl Geophys 29:211–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hubbard SS, Chen J, Peterson JE, Mayer EL, Williams KH, Swift DJ, Mailloux B, Rubin Y (2001) Hydrogeological characterisation of the south oyster bacterial transport site using geophysical data. Water Resour Res 37(10):2431–2456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hubbard SS, Rubin Y, Majer EL (1999) Spatial correlation structure estimation using geophysical and hydrogeological data. Water Resour Res 35(6):2659–2670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Loke MH, Barker RD (1996) Practical techniques for 3D resistivity surveys and data inversion. Geophys Prospect 44:499–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loke MH, Chambers JE, Rucker DF, Kuras O, Wilkinson PB (2013) Recent developments in the direct-current geoelectrical imaging method. J Appl Geophys 95:135–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Massoud U, Santos FM, Khalil MA, Taha A, Abbas MA (2010) Estimation of aquifer hydraulic parameters from surface geophysical measurements: a case study of the upper cretaceous aquifer, Central Sinai, Egypt. Hydrogeol J 18:699–710. doi: 10.1007/ s10040-009-0551-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Niwas S, Celik M (2012) Equation estimation of porosity and hydraulic conductivity of Ruhrtal aquifer in Germany using near surface geophysics. J Appl Geophys 84:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Obaje NG (2009) Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. In: Brooklyn SB, Bonn HJN, Gottingen JR, Graz KS, (ed), Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Springer, 120:22Google Scholar
  22. Ogbe FAG (1970) Stratigraphy of strata exposed in the Ewekoro quary, western Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman AJ (eds) African geology. University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria, pp. 305–324Google Scholar
  23. Okosun EA (1990) A review of the cretaceous stratigraphy of the Dahomey embayment, West Africa. Cretac Res 11:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olabode SO (2006) Siliciclastic slope deposits from the cretaceous Abeokuta group, Dahomey (Benin) basin, southwestern Nigeria. J Afr Earth Sci 46:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Omatsola ME, Adegoke OS (1981) Tectonic evolution and cretaceous stratigraphy of the Dahomey Basin. Nigerian J Min Geol 18(1):130–137Google Scholar
  26. Onuoha KO (1999) Structural features of Nigeria’s coastal margin: an assessment based on age data from wells. J Afr Earth Sci 29(3):485–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rubin Y, Hubbard S (2005) Hydrogeophysics, water science and technology library 50. Springer, Berlin, p. 523Google Scholar
  28. Rucker D, Loke MH, Levith MT, Noonan GE (2010) Electrical resistivity characterization of an industrial site using long electrodes. Geophysics 75(4):WA95–WA104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vereecken H, Binley A, Cassiani G, Kharkhordin I, Revil A, Titov K (eds) (2006) Applied Hydrogeophysics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 372Google Scholar
  30. Wilson SR, Ingham M, McConchie JA (2006) The applicability of earth resistivity methods for saline interface definition. J Hydrol 316(1–4):301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wilson RCC, Williams CA (1979) Oceanic transform structures and the developments of Atlantic continental margin sedimentary basin: a review. J Geol Soc Lond 136:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahzegbobor P. Aizebeokhai
    • 1
  • Kehinde D. Oyeyemi
    • 1
  • Emmanuel S. Joel
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics Department, College of Science and TechnologyCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria

Personalised recommendations