Petrography and geochemistry of Palaeozoic quartz-rich sandstones from Saudi Arabia: implications for provenance and chemostratigraphy

  • Alexander Bassis
  • Matthias Hinderer
  • Guido Meinhold
Original Paper


The Arabian Peninsula hosts a thick Palaeozoic succession, ranging from the Cambrian through the Permian. It not only contains deposits of the two major Palaeozoic glaciations but also holds both the major Palaeozoic hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. In addition, Palaeozoic sandstones serve as important aquifers. The succession is dominated by highly mature quartz arenites, as seen in thin sections. It is starved of fossils and very uniform in lithology. In order to better understand provenance, tectonic setting and stratigraphic relationships, the petrography as well as major and trace element geochemistry of sandstones were studied. Samples were taken from two study areas in southern (Wajid area) as well as central and northern (Tabuk area) Saudi Arabia. The dataset we present here is the first comprehensive study to cover the entire Palaeozoic succession in both the southern and northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The collisional signal from some samples is a relic from the last stages of the amalgamation of Gondwana, carried into the basin by glaciogenic sediments. Major and trace element geochemistry indicate the Neoproterozoic basement of the nearby Arabian Shield as the most likely source for the detritus. Tectonic discrimination diagrams suggest that deposition of sandstones took place in an intracratonic setting, which is in accordance with the established model for the evolution of the Arabian Plate. An influx of fresh material, probably sourced from the Shield, did occur in the late Palaeozoic units of the Wajid area but did not reach the Tabuk area. Geochemical methods have shown some success in characterising the provenance of both study areas but were unable to reliably assess sedimentary recycling. A (meta-)sedimentary source for the Palaeozoic sandstones could therefore neither be proven nor refuted. Multivariate cluster and principal component analysis of geochemical data revealed significant differences between the two study areas.


Saudi Arabia Palaeozoic Sandstone Provenance Petrography Geochemistry Chemostratigraphy 



This study has been enabled by the logistical support of the Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and DornierConsulting (DCo) in Riyadh. We thank Randolf Rausch (Riyadh) and the entire GIZ/DCo staff for their assistance and support during the 2013 field campaign and their interest in this study. We further want to thank Irina Ottenbacher (Göttingen) for her invaluable help during sample preparation. Nora Groschopf (Mainz) and Gerald Hartmann (Göttingen) are thanked for XRF analysis and Klaus Simon (Göttingen) for ICP-MS analysis. Sample analysis has been partially financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG grant ME 3882/4-1). We furthermore want to thank John S. Armstrong-Altrin (Mexico City) and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful suggestions and comments, which greatly helped to improve the manuscript.

Supplementary material

12517_2016_2412_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (749 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 749 kb)


  1. Akarish AIM, El-Gohary AM (2008) Petrography and geochemistry of lower paleozoic sandstones, East Sinai, Egypt: implications for provenance and tectonic setting. J Afr Earth Sci 52:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Ajmi HF (2013) Sedimentology, stratigraphy and reservoir quality of the Paleozoic Wajid Sandstone in SW Saudi Arabia. Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany, DissertationGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Ajmi HF, Hinderer M, Keller M, Rausch R (2008) New insights into the facies distribution of the Wajid Sandstone in its western outcrop area and implication on reservoir properties. The 3rd international conference on water resources and arid environments and the 1st Arab water forum, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Ajmi HF, Hinderer M, Rausch R, Hornung J, Bassis A, Keller M, Schüth C (2014) Matrix versus fracture permeability in a regional sandstone aquifer (Wajid Sandstone, SW Saudi Arabia). Grundwasser 19:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Ajmi HF, Keller M, Hinderer M, Filomena CM (2015) Lithofacies, depositional environments and stratigraphic architecture of the Wajid Group outcrops in southern Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 20:49–94Google Scholar
  6. Al-Ghazi A (2007) New evidence for the Early Devonian age of the Jauf Formation in northern Saudi Arabia. Revue Micropaléontol 50:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Hajri SA, Filatoff J, Wender LE, Norton AK (1999) Stratigraphy and operational palynology of the Devonian System in Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 4:53–68Google Scholar
  8. Al-Hajri S, Paris F (1998) Age and palaeoenvironment of the Sharawra Member (Silurian of north-western Saudi Arabia). Geobios 31:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Harbi OA, Khan MM (2005) Mineralogy and geochemistry of Unayzah Formation, central Saudi Arabia: implications for provenance interpretation. J King Saud Univ Sci 18:35–49Google Scholar
  10. Al-Harbi OA, Khan MM (2008) Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Tawil Sandstone (Lower Devonian) in central Saudi Arabia. J Asian Earth Sci 33:278–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Harbi OA, Khan MM (2011) Source and origin of glacial paleovalley-fill sediments (Upper Ordovician) of Sarah Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Arab J Geosci 4:825–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Al-Laboun AA (1993) Lexicon of the Palaeozoic and Lower Mesozoic of Saudi Arabia, Part 1, lithostratigraphic units, nomenclature review. Al-Hudhud Publishers, RiyadhGoogle Scholar
  13. Al-Laboun AA (2000) The Paleozoic geology of the Wajid area: a new approach. 4th Middle East Geosciences Conference, GEO 2000, Abstract. GeoArabia 5:26–27Google Scholar
  14. Al-Laboun AA (2009) Tectonostratigraphy of the exposed Silurian deposits in Arabia. Arab J Geosci 2:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Al-Laboun AA (2010) Paleozoic tectono-stratigraphic framework of the Arabian Peninsula. J King Saud Univ Sci 22:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Al-Laboun AA (2011) Tectono-history of the Silurian Sharawra Formation in northwestern and central Arabia. Egypt J Pure Appl Sci 49:1–7Google Scholar
  17. Al-Laboun AA (2013) Regional tectonic and megadepositional cycles of the Paleozoic of northwestern and central Saudi Arabia. Arab J Geosci 6:971–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Al-Ramadan KA, Hussain M, Imam B, Saner S (2004) Lithologic characteristics of the Devonian Jauf sandstone at Ghawar Field, eastern Saudi Arabia. Mar Petrol Geol 21:1221–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Alsharhan AS (1994) Geology and hydrocarbon occurrences of the clastic Permo-Carboniferous in the central and eastern Arabian Basin. Geol Mijnbouw 73a:63–73Google Scholar
  20. Alsharhan AS, Nairn AEM (1997) Sedimentary basins and petroleum geology of the Middle East. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  21. Armstrong-Altrin JS (2015) Evaluation of two multidimensional discrimination diagrams from beach and deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico and their application to Precambrian clastic sedimentary rocks. Int Geol Rev 57:1446–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Armstrong-Altrin JS, Verma SP (2005) Critical evaluation of six tectonic setting discrimination diagrams using geochemical data of Neogene sediments from known tectonic settings. Sediment Geol 177:155–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Avigad D, Sandler A, Kolodner K, Stern RJ, McWilliams M, Miller N, Beyth M (2005) Mass-production of Cambro-Ordovician quartz-rich sandstone as a consequence of chemical weathering of Pan-African terranes: environmental implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 240:818–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Babalola LO (1999) Depositional environments and provenance of the Wajid Sandstone, Abha-Khamis Mushayt area, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. MSc Thesis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi ArabiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Babalola LO, Hussain M, Hariri MM (2003) Origin of iron-rich beds in the basal Wajid Sandstone, Abha-Khamis Mushayt area, southwest Saudi Arabia. Arab J Sci Eng 28(1A):3–24Google Scholar
  26. Bahlburg H, Dobrzinski N (2011) A review of the chemical index of alteration (CIA) and its application to the study of Neoproterozoic glacial deposits and climate transitions. Geol Soc London Mem 36:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bassis A, Hinderer M, Meinhold G (2016) New insights into the provenance of Saudi Arabian Palaeozoic sandstones from heavy mineral analysis and single-grain geochemistry. Sediment Geol 333:100–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bauluz B, Mayayo MJ, Fernandez-Nieto C, Lopez JMG (2000) Geochemistry of Precambrian and Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks from the Iberian Range (NE Spain): implications for source-area weathering, sorting, provenance, and tectonic setting. Chem Geol 168:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bhatia MR (1983) Plate tectonics and geochemical composition of sandstones. J Geol 91:611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bhatia MR, Crook KAW (1986) Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins. Contrib Mineral Petr 92:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bishop RS (1995) Maturation history of the lower Palaeozoic of the eastern Arabian Platform. In: Al-Husseini MI (ed) Middle East petroleum geosciences, GEO’94 1:180–189Google Scholar
  32. Bracciali L, Marroni M, Pandolfi L, Rocchi S (2007) Geochemistry and petrography of western Tethys Cretaceous sedimentary covers (Corsica and northern Apennines): from source areas to configuration of margins. In: Arribas J, Critelli S, Johnsson MJ (eds), Sedimentary provenance and petrogenesis: perspectives from petrography and geochemistry, vol. 420, Geol Soc Am Spec Pap, pp 73–93Google Scholar
  33. Breuer P, Miller MA, Leszczyński S, Steemans P (2015) Climate-controlled palynofacies and miospore stratigraphy of the Jauf Formation, Lower Devonian, northern Saudi Arabia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:187–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. BRGM (1985) Water, agriculture and soil studies of Saq and overlying aquifers. Unpublished report, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Water Resources Development Department, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Cardenas AA, Girty GH, Hanson AD, Lahren MM, Knaack C, Johnson D (1996) Assessing differences in composition between low metamorphic grade mudstones and high-grade schists using logratio techniques. J Geol 104:279–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chandler FW (1988) Quartz arenites: review and interpretation. Sediment Geol 58:105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cingolani CA, Manassero M, Abre P (2003) Composition, provenance, and tectonic setting of Ordovician siliciclastic rocks in the San Rafael block: southern extension of the Precordillera crustal fragment, Argentina. J S Am Earth Sci 16:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clayton G, Owens B, Al-Hajri S, Filatoff J (2000) Latest Devonian and Early Carboniferous miospore assemblages from Saudi Arabia. In: Al-Hajri S, Owens B (eds) Stratigraphic palynology of the Palaeozoic of Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia Special Publication 1, Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain, pp 146–153Google Scholar
  39. Cullers RL, Podkovyrov VN (2002) The source and origin of terrigenous sedimentary rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Ui group, southeastern Russia. Precambrian Res 117:157–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Das BK, Al-Mikhlafi AS, Kaur P (2006) Geochemistry of Mansar Lake sediments, Jammu, India: implication for source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci 26:649–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dickinson WR, Suczek CA (1979) Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. AAPG Bull 63:2164–2182Google Scholar
  42. Dickinson WR, Beard LS, Brackenbridge GR, Erjavec JL, Ferguson RC, Inman KF, Knepp RA, Lindberg FA, Ryberg PT (1983) Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Geol Soc Am Bull 94:222–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Aydin A, Malpas J (2002) Re-assessment of chemical weathering indices: case study on pyroclastic rocks of Hong Kong. Eng Geol 63:99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Edgell HS (1997) Aquifers of Saudi Arabia and their geological framework. Arab J Sci Eng 22(1C):3–31Google Scholar
  45. Etemad-Saeed N, Hosseini-Barzi M, Armstrong-Altrin JS (2011) Petrography and geochemistry of clastic sedimentary rocks as evidences for provenance of the Lower Cambrian Lalun Formation, Posht-e-badam block, central Iran. J Afr Earth Sci 61:142–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Evans DS, Lathon RB, Senalp M, Connally TC (1991) Stratigraphy of the Wajid Sandstone of southwestern Saudi Arabia. proceedings of the 7th Society of Petroleum Engineers Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 16-19th November, 1991. SPE Paper 21449:947–960Google Scholar
  47. Fedo CM, Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1995) Unraveling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimentary rocks and paleosols, with implications for paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Geology 23:921–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ghienne JF (2003) Late Ordovician sedimentary environments, glacial cycles, and post-glacial transgression in the Taoudeni Basin, West Africa. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 189:117–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ghienne JF, Deynoux M (1998) Large-scale channel-fill structures in Late Ordovician glacial deposits in Mauritania, western Sahara. Sediment Geol 119:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ghienne JF, Deynoux M, Manatschal G, Rubino JL (2003) Palaeovalleys and fault-controlled depocentres in the Late Ordovician glacial record of the Murzuq Basin (central Libya). Compt Rendus Geosci 335:1091–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. GTZ/DCo (2009) Detailed water resources studies of Wajid and overlying aquifers, volume 10. Drilling Investigations. Unpublished report, Ministry of Water and Electricity, RiyadhGoogle Scholar
  52. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:1–9Google Scholar
  53. Hinderer M, Keller M, Al-Ajmi H, Rausch R (2009) Tales of two glaciations in the Paleozoic of SW Saudi Arabia: implications for ice shield dynamics and paleogeography of the SW Arabian Platform and adjacent areas. ILP Task Force on Sedimentary Basins, 2009 International Workshop, Abu DhabiGoogle Scholar
  54. Hints O, Paris F, Al-Hajri S (2015) Late Ordovician scolecodonts from the Qusaiba-1 core hole, central Saudi Arabia, and their paleogeographical affinities. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Huntsman-Mapila P, Tiercelin J-J, Benoit M, Ringrose S, Diskin S, Cotton J, Hémond C (2009) Sediment geochemistry and tectonic setting: application of discrimination diagrams to early stages of intracontinental rift evolution, with examples from the Okavango and Southern Tanganyika rift basins. J Afr Earth Sci 53:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hussain M (2001) Framework mineralogy, diagenesis and provenance of the Wajid Sandstone in Asir region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Report, KACST Project no. LPG 283Google Scholar
  57. Hussain M (2007) Elemental chemistry as a tool of stratigraphic correlation: a case study involving lower Paleozoic Wajid, Saq, and Qasim Formations in Saudi Arabia. Mar Petrol Geol 24:91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hussain M, Abdullatif OM (2004) Trace element geochemistry and heavy mineral assemblage of the Cambro-Ordovician Saq Sandstone of the Tabuk Basin and its possible correlation with the Wajid Sandstone of the Wajid Basin, southwest Saudi Arabia. Report, KACST Project LGP 6-54Google Scholar
  59. Hussain M, Babalola LO, Hariri M (2000) Provenance of the Wajid Sandstone, southeastern margin of the Arabian shield: geochemical and petrographic approach. American Association of Petroleum Geologists National Conference, New Orleans, USA, April 16, 1999, Extended Abstracts with Programs: 7Google Scholar
  60. Hussain M, Babalola LO, Hariri MM (2004) Heavy minerals in the Wajid Sandstone from Abha-Khamis Mushayt area, southwestern Saudi Arabia: implications on provenance and regional tectonic setting. GeoArabia 9:77–102Google Scholar
  61. Jackson NJ, Douch CJ (1986) Jabal Hamra REE-mineralized silexite, Hijaz region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Afr Earth Sci 4:269–274Google Scholar
  62. Jackson NJ, Walsh JN, Pegram E (1984) Geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of late Precambrian granitoids in the Central Hijaz Region of the Arabian Shield. Contrib Mineral Petrol 87:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Janoušek V, Farrow CM, Erban V (2006) Interpretation of whole-rock geochemical data in igneous geochemistry: introducing Geochemical Data Toolkit (GCDkit). J Petrol 47:1255–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson PR, Andresen A, Collins AS, Fowler AR, Fritz H, Ghebreab W, Kusky T, Stern RJ (2011) Late Cryogenian-Ediacaran history of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen. J Afr Earth Sci 61:167–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnsson MJ (1993) The system controlling the composition of clastic sediments. In: Johnsson MJ, Basu A (eds) Processes controlling the composition of clastic sediments, vol. 284, Geol Soc Am Spec Pap, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  66. Keller M, Hinderer M, Al-Ajmi HF, Rausch R (2011) Palaeozoic glacial depositional environments of SW Saudi Arabia: process and product. In: Martini IP, French HM, Pérez Alberti A (eds) Icemarginal and periglacial processes and sediments, vol 354, Geol Soc London Spec Publ, pp 129–152Google Scholar
  67. Kellogg KS, Janjou D, Minoux L, Fourniguet J (1986) Explanatory notes to the geologic map of the Wadi Tathlith Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Geoscience Map GM-103C, scale 1:250,000, sheet 20G. Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaGoogle Scholar
  68. Khalifa MA (2015) Glacial and post-glacial deposits of the Unayzah Formation (Carboniferous-Permian), Saudi Arabia: facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy. Carbonate Evaporite 30:207–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knox RWO’B, Franks SG, Cocker JD (2007) Stratigraphic evolution of heavy-mineral provenance signatures in the sandstones of the Wajid Group (Cambrian to Permian), Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 12:65–96Google Scholar
  70. Knox RWO’B, Cocker JD, Filatoff J (2010) Heavy mineral stratigraphy of the Unayzah Formation and Basal Khuff Clastics (Carboniferous to Permian) of central Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 15:17–80Google Scholar
  71. Kolodner K, Avigad D, McWilliams M, Wooden JL, Weissbrod T, Feinstein S (2006) Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian–Ordovician sandstone: U–Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan. Geol Mag 143:367–391Google Scholar
  72. Konert G, Al-Afifi AM, Al-Hajri SA, Droste HJ (2001) Paleozoic stratigraphy and hydrocarbon habitat of the Arabian Plate. GeoArabia 6:407–442Google Scholar
  73. Le Hérissé A, Molyneux SG, Miller MA (2015) Late Ordovician to early Silurian acritarchs from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, central Saudi Arabia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:22–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Le Heron D, Sutcliffe O, Bourgig K, Craig J, Visentin C, Whittington R (2004) Sedimentary architecture of Upper Ordovician tunnel valleys, Gargaf Arch, Libya: implications for the genesis of a hydrocarbon reservoir. GeoArabia 9:137–160Google Scholar
  75. Le Heron DP, Sutcliffe OE, Whittington RJ, Craig J (2005) The origins of glacially related softsediment deformation structures in Upper Ordovician glaciogenic rocks: implication for ice sheet dynamics. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 218:75–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Le Heron DP, Craig J, Etienne JP (2009) Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East. Earth-Sci Rev 93:47–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Le Heron DP, Armstrong HA, Wilson C, Howard JP, Gindre L (2010) Glaciation and deglaciation of the Libyan Desert: the Late Ordovician record. Sediment Geol 223:100–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Le Heron DP, Meinhold G, Bergig K (2013) Neoproterozoic–Devonian stratigraphic evolution of the eastern Murzuq Basin, Libya: a tale of tilting in the central Sahara. Basin Res 25:52–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Le Heron DP, Meinhold G, Elgadry M, Abutarruma Y, Boote D (2015) Early Palaeozoic evolution of Libya: perspectives from Jabal Eghei with implications for hydrocarbon exploration in Al Kufrah Basin. Basin Res 27:60–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Leo GW (1986) Geochemical reconnaissance of late Proterozoic volcanic and mafic plutonic rocks of the Al ‘Awshaziyah Quadrangle and related rocks in the Qufar Quadrangle, northern Arabian Shield. U S Geol Surv Bull 1680:16Google Scholar
  81. Lüning S, Craig J, Loydell DK, Štorch P, Fitches B (2000) Lower Silurian ‘hot shales’ in North Africa and Arabia: regional distribution and depositional model. Earth-Sci Rev 49:121–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McBride EF (1963) A classification of common sandstones. J Sediment Petrol 33:664–669Google Scholar
  83. McClure HA (1978) Early Paleozoic glaciation in Arabia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 25:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McDonough WF, Sun SS (1995) The composition of the Earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McGillivray JG, Husseini MI (1992) The Palaeozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia. AAPG Bull 76:1473–1490Google Scholar
  86. McLennan SM (1989) Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks: influence of provenance and sedimentary processes. In: Lipin BR, McKay GA (eds) Geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earth elements, vol 21, Rev Mineral, pp 169–200Google Scholar
  87. McLennan SM (2001) Relationships between the trace element composition of sedimentary rocks and upper continental crust. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 2(4). doi:10.1029/2000GC000109Google Scholar
  88. McLennan SM, Hemming S, McDaniel DK, Hanson GN (1993) Geochemical approaches to sedimentation, provenance and tectonics. In: Johnsson MJ, Basu A (eds) Processes controlling the composition of clastic sediments. Geol Soc Am, Boulder, pp. 21–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Meinhold G, Kostopoulos D, Reischmann T (2007) Geochemical constraints on the provenance and depositional setting of sedimentary rocks from the islands of Chios, Inousses and Psara, Aegean Sea, Greece: implications for the evolution of Palaeotethys. J Geol Soc Lond 164:1145–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Meinhold G, Morton AC, Avigad D (2013a) New insights into peri-Gondwana paleogeography and the Gondwana super-fan system from detrital zircon U–Pb ages. Gondwana Res 23:661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meinhold G, Howard JP, Strogen D, Kaye MD, Abutarruma Y, Elgadry M, Thusu B, Whitham AG (2013b) Hydrocarbon source rock potential and elemental composition of lower Silurian subsurface shales of the eastern Murzuq Basin, southern Libya. Mar Petrol Geol 48:224–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Meissner CR Jr, Mytton JW, Riddler GP, van Eck M, Aspinall NC, Farasini AM, Dini SM (1989) Preliminary geological map of the Al Jawf Quadrangle, sheet 39D, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Report 89-342Google Scholar
  93. Melvin J, Norton AK (2013) Advances in Arabian stratigraphy: comparative studies of glaciogenic Juwayl and lower Unayzah strata (Carboniferous–Permian) of Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 18:97–134Google Scholar
  94. Melvin J, Sprague RA, Heine CJ (2010) From bergs to ergs: The late Paleozoic Gondwanan glaciation and its aftermath in Saudi Arabia. In: Lopez-Gamundi OR, Buatois LA (eds) Late Paleozoic glacial events and postglacial transgressions in Gondwana, vol 468, Geol Soc Am Spec Pap, pp 37–80Google Scholar
  95. Melvin J (2015) Lithostratigraphy and depositional history of Upper Ordovician and lowermost Silurian sediments recovered from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, Qasim region, central Saudi Arabia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mongelli G, Critelli S, Perri F, Sonnino M, Perrone V (2006) Sedimentary recycling, provenance and paleoweathering from chemistry and mineralogy of Mesozoic continental redbed mudrocks, Peloritani mountains, southern Italy. Geochem J 40:197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Murali AV, Parthasarathy R, Mahadevan TM, Das MS (1983) Trace element characteristics, REE patterns and partition coefficients of zircons from different geological environments—a case study on Indian zircons. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:2047–2052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299:715–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1984) Prediction of some weathering trends of plutonic and volcanic rocks based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:1523–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nesbitt HW, Young GM, McLennan SM, Keays RR (1996) Effects of chemical weathering and sorting on the petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments, with implications for provenance studies. J Geol 104:525–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Paris F, Miller AM, Al-Hajri S, Zalasiewicz J (2015a) Early Silurian chitinozoans from the Qusaiba type area, north Central Saudi Arabia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:127–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Paris F, Verniers J, Miller AM, Al-Hajri S, Melvin J, Wellman CH (2015b) Late Ordovician-earliest Silurian chitinozoans from the Qusaiba-1 core hole (north Central Saudi Arabia) and their relations to the Hirnantian glaciation. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:60–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pettijohn FJ (1954) Classification of sandstones. J Geol 62:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Powers RW, Ramirez LF, Redmond CD, Elberg EL Jr (1966) Geology of the Arabian Peninsula: sedimentary geology of Saudi Arabia. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap 560-DGoogle Scholar
  105. Ramsay CR, Drysdall AR, Clark MD (1986) Felsic plutonic rocks of the Midyan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – I. Distribution, classification and resource potential. J Afr Earth Sci 4:63–77Google Scholar
  106. Roser BP, Korsch RJ (1986) Determination of tectonic setting of sandstone-mudstone suites using SiO2 content and K2O/Na2O ratio. J Geol 94:635–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Roser BP, Korsch RJ (1988) Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined using discriminant function analysis of major-element data. Chem Geol 67:119–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) Composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick R, Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on Geochemistry, vol 3, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  109. Salman AS, Zaidi FK, Hussein MT (2014) Evaluation of groundwater quality in northern Saudi Arabia using multivariate analysis and stochastic statistics. Environ Earth Sci 74:7769–7782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schubert M, Schüth C, Michelsen N, Rausch R, Al-Saud M (2011) Investigation and treatment of natural radioactivity in large-scale sandstone aquifer systems. Int J Water Resour Arid Environ 1:25–32Google Scholar
  111. Schwab FL (1978) Modern and ancient sedimentary Utah. Sedimentology 25:97–109Google Scholar
  112. Senalp M, Al-Duaiji A (1995) Stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Unayzah reservoir, central Saudi Arabia. In: Al-Husseini MI (ed) Middle East petroleum geosciences conference, GEO’94. Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain, pp. 837–847Google Scholar
  113. Senalp M, Al-Laboun AA (2000) New evidence on the Late Ordovician glaciation in central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology, Spring 2000:11–40Google Scholar
  114. SGS (2013) Phanerozoic Stratigraphy of Saudi Arabia Part 1 – Paleozoic Successions of the Arabian Shelf (cover rocks). Saudi Strat Comm Spec Publ 1:1–69Google Scholar
  115. Sharland PR, Archer R, Casey DM, Davies RB, Hall SH, Heward AP, Horbury AD, Simmons MD (2001) Arabian Plate sequence stratigraphy. GeoArabia Special Publication 2, Gulf PetroLink, BahrainGoogle Scholar
  116. Sharland PR, Casey DM, Davies RB, Simmons MD, Sutcliffe OE (2004) Arabian Plate sequence stratigraphy. GeoArabia 9:199–214Google Scholar
  117. Squire RJ, Campbell IH, Allen CM, Wilson JL (2006) Did the Transgondwanan supermountain trigger the explosive radiation of animals on Earth? Earth Planet Sci Lett 250:116–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steineke MRA, Bramkamp RA, Sander NJ (1958) Stratigraphic relations of Arabian Jurassic oil. In: Weeks LG (ed) Habitat of oil. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Symposium, Tulsa, OK, pp. 1294–1329Google Scholar
  119. Stephenson MH (2004) Early Permian spores from Oman and Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia Spec Publ 3:185–215Google Scholar
  120. Stuckless JS, Van Trump G Jr, Moore WJ, Bartel AJ, Vaughn RB, Bush CA (1985) Geochemistry and preliminary assessment of resource potential for postorogenic granites of the east-central Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Report USGS-OF-05-26Google Scholar
  121. Stuckless JS, Vaughn RB, Van Trump G Jr (1986) Trace-element contents of postorogenic granites of the eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Report USGS-OF-06-2Google Scholar
  122. Stump TE, Al-Hajri S, van der Eem JG (1995) Geology and biostratigraphy of the Late Precambrian through Paleozoic sediments of Saudi Arabia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 89:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stump TE, van der Eem JG (1995) The stratigraphy, depositional environments and periods of deformation of the Wajid outcrop belt, southwestern Saudi Arabia. J Afr Earth Sci 21:421–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1985) The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  125. Taylor SR, McLennan SM (2009) Planetary crusts: their composition, origin and evolution. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  126. Thralls HW, Hasson RC (1956) Geology and oil resources of eastern Saudi Arabia. 20th international geology Congress. Mexico and Symposium Sobre Yacimentos de Petroleum and Gas 2:9–32Google Scholar
  127. Vaslet D (1990) Upper Ordovician glacial deposits in Saudi Arabia. Episodes 13:147–161Google Scholar
  128. Verma SP, Armstrong-Altrin JS (2013) New multi-dimensional diagrams for tectonic discrimination of siliciclastic sediments and their application to Precambrian basins. Chem Geol 355:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. von Eynatten H, Dunkl I (2012) Assessing the sediment factory: the role of single grain analysis. Earth-Sci Rev 115:97–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. von Eynatten H, Tolosana-Delgado R, Karius V (2012) Sediment generation in modern glacial settings: grain-size and source-rock control on sediment composition. Sediment Geol 280:80–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wanas HA, Abdel-Maguid NM (2006) Petrography and geochemistry of the Cambro-Ordovician Wajid Sandstone, southwest Saudi Arabia: implications for provenance and tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci 27:416–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wedepohl KH (1978) Handbook of geochemistry, volume II, part 2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  133. Weibel R, Johannessen PN, Dybkjær K, Rosenberg P, Knudsen C (2010) Chemostratigraphy of upper Jurassic reservoir sandstones, Danish Central Graben, North Sea. Mar Petrol Geol 27:1572–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wellman CH, Steemans P, Miller MA (2015) Spore assemblages from Upper Ordovician and lowermost Silurian sediments recovered from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, Qasim region, central Saudi Arabia. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 212:111–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Weltje GJ (2002) Quantitative analysis of detrital modes: statistically rigorous confidence regions in ternary diagrams and their use in sedimentary petrology. Earth-Sci Rev 57:211–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Weltje GJ (2004) A quantitative approach to capturing the compositional variability of modern sands. Sediment Geol 171:59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weltje GJ (2006) Ternary sandstone composition and provenance: an evaluation of the ‘Dickinson model’. In: Buccianti A, Mateu-Figueras G, Pawlowsky-Glahn V (eds) Compositional data analysis: from theory to practice, vol 264, Geol Soc Spec Publ, pp 611–627Google Scholar
  138. Weltje GJ, von Eynatten H (2004) Quantitative provenance analysis of sediments: review and outlook. Sediment Geol 171:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Weltje GJ, Meijer XD, de Boer PL (1998) Stratigraphic inversion of siliciclastic basin fills: a note on the distinction between supply signals resulting from tectonic and climatic forcing. Basin Res 10:129–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wender LE, Bryant JW, Dickens MF, Neville AS, Al-Moqbel AM (1998) Paleozoic (pre-Khuff) hydrocarbon geology of the Ghawar area, eastern Saudi Arabia. GeoArabia 3:273–302Google Scholar
  141. Wronkiewicz DJ, Condie KC (1987) Geochemistry of Archean shales from the Witwatersrand supergroup, South Africa: source-area weathering and provenance. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51:2401–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Young GM, Minter WEL, Theron JN (2004) Geochemistry and palaeogeography of upper Ordovician glaciogenic sedimentary rocks in the Table Mountain Group, South Africa. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 214:323–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Bassis
    • 1
  • Matthias Hinderer
    • 1
  • Guido Meinhold
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Applied GeosciencesDarmstadt Technical UniversityDarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.Department of Sedimentology and Environmental Geology, Geoscience CenterUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations