Advertisement

Geochemical processes analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Hamadan Province, Western Iran

  • Mohammad Nakhaei
  • Majid Altafi Dadgar
  • Vahab Amiri
Original Paper

Abstract

We attempted to identify the geochemical processes responsible for the present status of groundwater chemistry and to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes in Hamadan province, western Iran. Groundwater from 225 regional deep and dug wells was sampled from eight aquifers and analyzed seasonally during 2013–2014. The major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl, SO4 2−, and HCO3 ) were used to recognize the hydrochemical characteristics of the groundwater. Results show that the hydrochemistry of Hamadan province is partly due to the weathering process, dissolution of carbonate formations, the cation exchange processes, and chemical inputs from precipitation. The cation dominance order is Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+, while the anion dominance order is SO4 2− > HCO3 > Cl. The groundwater type in Hamadan-Bahar, Kabudrahang, and Ghahavand aquifers (central aquifers) is largely characterized as a chloride water type and in the other aquifers (western, southtern, and northern aquifers), relatively shifted to a HCO3 water type. Except for a few locations with high values of EC, pH, and other dissolved ions, water quality is suitable for domestic use. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), %Na, and permeability index (PI) values suggest suitability of most water samples for irrigation purposes. The majority of water samples belong to C2S1 and C3S1, indicating medium salinity-low sodium and high salinity-low sodium waters, which high SAR, PI, and Na% in a few locations restricts its suitability for agricultural activities.

Keywords

Groundwater quality Hydrochemical facies Suitability Hamadan province 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Hamadan Regional Water Authority (HRWA) for kind cooperation and providing the water chemistry data. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments. They would also like to thank the Dr. Abdullah M. Al-Amri, Editor-in-Chief of Arabian Journal of Geosciences, for his generous comments and support during the review process.

References

  1. Alaya MB, Saidi S, Zemni T, Zargouni F (2013) Suitability assessment of deep groundwater for drinking and irrigation use in the Djeffara aquifers (Northern Gabes, south-eastern Tunisia). Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2729-9 Google Scholar
  2. Alfy ME (2012) Integrated geostatistics and GIS techniques for assessing groundwater contamination in Al Arish area, Sinai, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 5:197–215. doi: 10.1007/s12517010-0153-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amiri V, Nakhaei M, Lak R, Kholghi M (2015a) Assessment of seasonal groundwater quality and potential saltwater intrusion: a study case in Urmia coastal aquifer (NW Iran) using the groundwater quality index (GQI) and hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D). Stoch Env Res Risk A. doi: 10.1007/s00477-015-1108-3 Google Scholar
  4. Amiri V, Rezaei M, Sohrabi N (2014) Groundwater quality assessment using entropy weighted water quality index (EWQI) in Lenjanat, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 72:3479–3490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amiri V, Sohrabi N, Altafi Dadgar M (2015b) Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its suitability for drinking and agricultural uses in the Lenjanat plain, central Iran. Environ Earth Sci 74:6163–6176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (21st edition). American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (2005) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution, 2nd edn. Balkema, RotterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbecot F, Marlin C, Gibert E, Dever L (2000) Hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of the Bathonian and Bajocian coastal aquifer of the Caen area (northern France). Appl Geochem 15:791–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chadha DK (1999) A proposed new diagram for geochemical classification of natural water and interpretation of chemical data. Hydrogeol J 7:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delgado C, Pacheco J, Cabrera A, Batllori E, Orellana R, Bautista F (2010) Quality of groundwater for irrigation in tropical karst environment: the case of Yucata’n, Mexico. Agric Water Manag 97:1423–1433. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Devic G, Djordjevic D, Sakan S (2014) Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia. Sci Total Environ 468-469:933–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doneen LD (1962) The influence of crop and soil on percolating water. Proc. 1961 Biennial conference on Groundwater Recharge, 156–163.Google Scholar
  13. Edmunds WM, Carrillo-Rivera JJ, Cardona A (2002) Geochemical evolution of groundwater beneath Mexico City. J Hydrol 258:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edmunds WM, Ma JZ, Aeschbach-Hertig W, Kipfer R, Darbyshire DPF (2006) Groundwater recharge history and hydrogeochemical evolution in the Minqin Basin, North West China. Appl Geochem 21:2148–2170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esmaeili-Vardanjani M, Rasa I, Amiri V, Yazdi M, Pazand K (2015) Evaluation of groundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of water samples in kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 187:53. doi: 10.1007/s10661-014-4261-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. J Sci 17:1088–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guey-Shin S, Bai-You C, Chi-Ting C, Pei-Hsuan Y, TsunKuo C (2011) Applying factor analysis combined with kriging and information entropy theory for mapping and evaluating the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:1084–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo H, Wang Y (2004) Hydrogeochemical processes in shallow quaternary aquifers from the northern part of the Datong Basin, China; Appl. Geochem 19(1):19–27Google Scholar
  19. Jalali M (2005a) Nitrates leaching from agricultural land in Hamedan, western Iran. Agric Ecosyst Environ 110:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jalali M (2007) Salinization of groundwater in arid and semiarid zones: an example from tajarak, Western Iran. Environ Geol 52:1133–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jalali M (2009) Groundwater geochemistry in the Alisadr, Hamadan, Western Iran. Nat Resour Res 21(1):61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jalali M (2011) Hydrochemical characteristics and sodification of groundwater in the Shirin Sou, Hamadan, Western Iran. Nat Resour Res 21(1):61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalantary N, Rahmani M, Charchi A (2007) Use of composite diagram, factor analyses and saturation index for quantification of Zaviercherry and Kheran plain groundwaters. J Eng Geol 2(1):339–356Google Scholar
  24. Karanth KR (1987) Groundwater assessment, development and management. Tata-McGraw-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  25. Kazemi GA, Mohammadi A (2012) Significance of hydrogeochemical analysis in the management of groundwater resources: a case study in northeastern Iran. Hydrogeology—a global perspective, Dr. Gholam A. Kazemi (Ed.), ISBN: 978–953-51-0048-5.Google Scholar
  26. Li P, Qian H, Wu J, Chen J, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2013c) Occurrence and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride in shallow alluvial aquifer of Weihe River, China. Environ Earth Sci 71(7):3133–3145. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2691-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li P, Qian H, Wu J, Ding J (2010) Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China. Water Sci Eng 3(3):282–291. doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.004 Google Scholar
  28. Li P, Qian H, Wu J, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2013a) Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater in the Dongsheng Coalfield, Ordos Basin, China. Mine Water Environ 32(3):195–206. doi: 10.1007/s10230-013-0234-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2013b) Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical evolution mechanisms in Pengyang County, China. Environ Earth Sci 69(7):2211–2225. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-2049-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2014) Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in the Southern Part of the Yellow River alluvial plain (Zhongwei Section), China. Earth Sci Res J 18(1):27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mahdavi M (2007) Applied hydrology. Tehran University Publication, Iran(In Persian)Google Scholar
  32. McLean W, Jankowski J, Lavitt N (2000) Groundwater quality and sustainability in an alluvial aquifer, Australia. In: Sililo O et al. (eds) Groundwater, past achievements and future challenges. A Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 567–573Google Scholar
  33. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2), a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport and inverse geochemical calculations. US Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4259.Google Scholar
  34. Rademacher LK, Clark JF, Hudson GB, Erman DC, Erman NA (2001) Chemical evolution of shallow groundwater as recorded by springs, Sagehen basin. Nevada County. Calif Chem Geol 179:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rajmohan N, Elango L (2004) Identification and evolution of hydrogeochemical processes in an area of the Palar and Cheyyar River Basin, Southern India. Environ Geol 46:47–61Google Scholar
  36. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Salama RB (1993) The chemical evolution of groundwater in a first-order catchment and the process of salt accumulation in the soil profile. J Hydrol 143:233–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saleh Al-Amry A (2008) Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment in an arid region: a case study from Al Salameh Area, Shabwah, Yemen. The 3rd International Conference on Water Resources and Arid Environments and the 1st Arab Water Forum.Google Scholar
  39. Sarath Prasanth SV, Magesh NS, Jitheshlal KV, Chandrasekar N, Gangadhar K (2012) Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. Appl Water Sci 2:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sikdar PK, Sarkar SS, Palchoudhury S (2001) Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of Calcutta and Howrah. India J Asian Earth Sci 19:579–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sung KY, Yun ST, Park ME, Koh YK, Choi BY, Hutcheon I, Kim KH (2012) Reaction path modeling of hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in granitic bedrocks, South Korea. J Geochem Explor 118:90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Todd DK (1980) Groundwater hydrology [M], 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p. 535Google Scholar
  43. Van Wirdum G (1980) Description of water-quality changes in a hydrological cycle, for the purpose of nature conservation (in Dutch). In Waterquality in groundwater-flow systems, J.C. Hooghart (ed.), Commission for Hydrological Research TNO, The Hague, The Netherlands, Reports and notes 5, pp. 118–143.Google Scholar
  44. Wang Y, Jiao JJ (2012) Origin of groundwater salinity and hydrogeochemical processes in the confined Quaternary aquifer of the Pearl River Delta, China. J Hydrol 438-439:112–124. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. WHO (2004) Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  46. Wilcox LV (1958) The quality of water for irrigation. US Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  47. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th Edn http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548151_eng.pdf. Accessed 24 Nov 2012.
  48. Wu J, Li P, Qian H, Duan Z, Zhang X (2014) Using correlation and multivariate statistical analysis to identify hydrogeochemical processes affecting the major ion chemistry of waters: case study in Laoheba phosphorite mine in Sichuan, China. Arab J Geosci 7(10):3973–3982. doi: 10.1007/s12517-013-1057-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Nakhaei
    • 1
  • Majid Altafi Dadgar
    • 1
  • Vahab Amiri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth SciencesKharazmi UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations