Advertisement

Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 143–160 | Cite as

Assessing the impacts of changing land cover and climate on Hokersar wetland in Indian Himalayas

  • Shakil Ahmad RomshooEmail author
  • Irfan Rashid
Original Paper

Abstract

Monitoring the spatiotemporal changes in wetlands and assessing their causal factors is critical for developing robust strategies for the conservation and restoration of these ecologically important ecosystems. In this study, the spatiotemporal changes in the land cover system within a Himalayan wetland and its catchment were assessed and correlated using a time series of satellite, historical, and field data. Significant changes in the spatial extent, water depth, and the land system of the Hokersar wetland were observed from the spatiotemporal analysis of the data from 1969 to 2008. The wetland area has shrunk from 18.75 km2 in 1969 to 13 km2 in 2008 with drastic reduction in the water depth of the wetland. The marshy lands, habitat of the migratory birds, have shrunk from 16.3 km2 in 1969 to 5.62 km2 in 2008 and have been colonized by various other land cover types. The land system and water extent changes within the wetland were related to the spatiotemporal changes in the land cover and hydrometeorological variables at the catchment scale. Significant changes in the forest cover (88.33–55.78 km2), settlement (4.63–15.35 km2), and water bodies (1.75–0.51 km2) were observed in the catchment. It is concluded that the urbanization, deforestation, changes in the hydrologic and climatic conditions, and other land system changes observed in the catchment are the main causes responsible for the depleting wetland extent, water depth, and biodiversity by adversely influencing the hydrologic erosion and other land surface processes in the catchment. All these causes and effects are manifest in the form of deterioration of the water quality, water quantity, the biodiversity changes, and the decreasing migratory bird population in the wetland.

Keywords

Spatiotemporal changes Catchment Remote sensing Biodiversity Hydrometeorology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support given by the Earth System Science Organization, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India to conduct this research.

References

  1. Akhtar M, Ahmad N, Booij MJ (2008) The impact of climate change on the water resources of Hindukush–Karakorum–Himalaya region under different glacier coverage scenarios. J Hydrol 355:148–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldous A, Fitzsimons J, Richter B, Bach L (2011) Droughts, floods and freshwater ecosystems: evaluating climate change impacts and developing adaptation strategies. Mar Freshw Res 62(3):2230–2231. doi: 10.1071/MF09285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (1990) Directory of wetlands in India. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, p 52Google Scholar
  4. Baker C, Lawerence R, Montagne C, Pattern D (2007) Change detection of wetland ecosystem using Landsat imagery and change vector analysis. Wetlands 27(3):610–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basnyat P, Teeter LD, Lockaby GG, Flynn KM (2000) The use of remote sensing and GIs in watershed level analyses of non-point source pollution problems. For Ecol Manag 128:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birkett CM (1995) The global remote sensing of lakes, wetlands and rivers for hydrological and climate research. Proceedings of IEEE IGARSS Conference, Firenze, pp. 1979–1981Google Scholar
  7. Bourgeau-Chavez LL, Kasischke ES, Brunzell SM, Mudd JP, Smith KB, Frick AL (2001) Analysis of space-borne SAR data for wetland mapping in Virginia riparian ecosystems. Int J Remote Sens 22(18):3665–3687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bullock A, Acreman M (2003) The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 7(3):358–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costanza R, D’Arge R, de Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O’Neill RV, Paruelo J, Rsakin RG, Sutton P, Van den Belt M (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dahal N (2005) Perceptions in the Himalayas. Tiempo 56:19–24Google Scholar
  11. Dar GH, Bhagat RC, Khan MA (2002) Biodiversity of Kashmir Himalayas. Valley, Srinagar, p 399Google Scholar
  12. Davis TJ (1993) Towards the wise use of wetlands. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Kuala Lampur, p 45Google Scholar
  13. DEARS (2001) Land use/land cover mapping of Jammu and Kashmir State—a report Directorate of Environment, Ecology and Remote Sensing, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, p 92Google Scholar
  14. Donner S (2003) The impact of cropland cover on river nutrient levels in the Mississippi River Basin. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 12(4):341–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foody GM (2002) Status of land cover classification accuracy assessment. Remote Sens Environ 80(1):185–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fu KS (1976) Pattern recognition in remote sensing of the Earth resources. IEEE Trans Geosci Electron 14(1):10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Funk DE, Pullman E, Peterson K, Crill P, Billings W (1994) Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane flux from taiga bog microcosms. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 8(3):271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gangoo SA, Makaya AS (2000) Changes in vegetation pattern of Hokersar (Wetland reserve), Kashmir. In: Environmental Biodiversity and Conservation, p. 170–112Google Scholar
  19. Garg JK, Singh TS, Murthy TVR (1998) Wetlands of India. Project report: RSAM/SAC/resa/pr/01/98. Space Application Centre, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmadabad, p 240Google Scholar
  20. Gillies RR, Box JB, Symanzik J, Rodemaker EJ (2003) Effects of urbanization on the aquatic fauna of the Line Creek Watershed, Atlanta—a satellite perspective. Remote Sens Environ 86(3):411–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gondwe BRN, Sang-Hoon H, Wdowinski S, Bauer-Gottwein P (2010) Hydrologic dynamics of the ground-water dependent Sian Ka’an wetlands, Mexico, derived from InSAR and SAR data. Wetlands 30:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Handoo JK (1978) Ecological and production studies of some typical wetlands of Kashmir. Ph.D Thesis, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 141 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Handoo JK, Kaul V (1982) Phytosociological and standing crop studies in wetlands of Kashmir. In: Gopal B, Turner RE, Wetzel RG, Whigam DF (eds) Wetlands: ecology and management, part1. National Institute of Ecology and International Scientific Publication, Jaipur, pp 187–197Google Scholar
  24. Hess LL, Melack JM, Filoso S, Wang Y (1995) Delineation of inundated area and vegetation along the Amazon floodplain with SIR-C synthetic aperture radar. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 33(4):896–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hruby T (1995) Estimating relative wetland values for regional planning. Wetlands 15(2):93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Humayun R, Joshi PK (2000) Evaluation of waterfowl habitat in Hokersar Wetland Reserve, Jammu & Kashmir: a geospatial approach. PG Diploma Dissertation Report, IIRS, Dehradun, India, p 37Google Scholar
  27. ICIMOD (2009) The changing Himalayas: impact of climate change on water resources and livelihoods in the Greater Himalayas. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal, p 25Google Scholar
  28. International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (1997) Henry’s Law: IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. 2nd EditionGoogle Scholar
  29. International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (1997) Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. Online version: http://goldbook.iupac.org/H02783.html. Accessed on: 24th March
  30. ISRO (2005) NNRMS standards: a national standard for EO images, thematic and cartographic maps, GIS databases and spatial outputs. ISRO NNRMS Tech Rep No 112:235ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Joshi PK, Humayun R, Roy PS (2002) Landscape dynamics in Hokersar wetland—an application of geospatial approach. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 30(1&2):2002Google Scholar
  32. Kak AM (1990) Aquatic and wetland vegetation of Kashmir Himalaya. J Econ Taxon Bot 14(1):1–14Google Scholar
  33. Kapetsky JM (1987) Satellite remote sensing to locate and inventory small water bodies for fishing management and aquaculture development in Zimbabwe, CIFA Occasional Paper, no. 14. Rome: FAO (Fisheries and Aquaculture Department). http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ad768e/ad768e00.htm. Accessed: 1 March 2012
  34. Kaul S (1982) Community architecture, biomass and production in some typical wetlands of Kashmir. Indian J Ecol 9:320–329Google Scholar
  35. Kaul V, Zutshi DP (1967) A study of aquatic and marshland vegetation of Srinagar lakes. Proc Natl Inst Sci India 33B:111–128Google Scholar
  36. Khan MA (2000) Wetland biodiversity in the Kashmir Himalaya: assessment and conservation strategies. In: Khan MA (ed) Environmental biodiversity and conservation. APH Publishing, New Delhi, pp 69–93Google Scholar
  37. Kingsford RT (2011) Conservation management of rivers and wetlands under climate change—a synthesis. Mar Freshw Res 62(3):217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klausmeyer KR, Shaw MR (2009) Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide. PLoS One 4(7):e6392. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kraiem H (2002) Biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change on wetlands in Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Mediterranean Regional Workshop on Water, Wetlands and Climate Change: Building Linkages for their Integrated Management, Athens, Greece, 10–11December, 2002Google Scholar
  40. Lyon J (2001) Wetland landscape characterization: GIS, remote sensing and image analysis. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, p 160Google Scholar
  41. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005) Ecosystems and human wellbeing: wetlands and water synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, p 80Google Scholar
  42. Mitsch WI, Gosselink IG (1986) Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Munyati C (2000) Wetland change detection on the Kafue Flats, Zambia, by classification of a multi-temporal remote sensing image dataset. Int J Remote Sens 21(9):1787–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. O’Reilly CM, Alin SR, Pilsnier PD, Cohen AS, McKee BA (2003) Climate change decreases aquatic ecosystem productivity of Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Nature 424:766–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Olmanson LG, Bauer ME, Brezonik PL (2002) Aquatic vegetation surveys using high resolution IKONOS imagery. Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission-IV Symposium Integrated Remote Sensing at the Global, Regional and Local Scales, 10–15 Nov 2002, Denver, CO USAGoogle Scholar
  46. Omernik JM, Abernathy AR, Male LM (1981) Stream nutrient levels and proximity of agricultural and forest lands to streams: some relationships. J Soil Water Conserv 36:227–231Google Scholar
  47. Ozesmi SL, Bauer ME (2002) Satellite remote sensing of wetlands. Wetl Ecol Manag 10(5):381–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pal S, Akoma OC (2009) Water scarcity in wetland area within Kandi Block of West Bengal: a hydro-ecological assessment. Ethiop J Environ Stud Manag 2(3):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Palmer MA, Lettenmaier DP, Poff NL, Postel SL, Richter B, Warner R (2009) Climate change and river ecosystems: protection and adaptation options. Environ Manag 44(6):1053–1068. doi: 10.1007/S00267-009-9329-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pandit AK (1980) Biotic factor and food chain structure in some typical wetlands of Kashmir. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&KGoogle Scholar
  51. Pandit AK, Kumar R (2006) Comparative studies on ecology of Hokersar wetland, Kashmir: present and past. J Himal Ecol Sustain Dev 1:73–81Google Scholar
  52. Poppe L, Rutherford I, Price P, Lovett S (2006) River and riparian land management: controlling willows along Australian rivers. Technical guideline No. 6, Land and Water Australia. Australian Govt, Canberra, p 17Google Scholar
  53. Ramsey EW (1998) Radar remote sensing of wetlands. In: Lunetta RS, Elvidge CD (eds) Remote sensing change detection: environmental monitoring methods and applications. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, p 318Google Scholar
  54. Rashid M, Lone MA, Romshoo SA (2011) Geospatial tools for assessing land degradation in Budgam district, Kashmir Himalaya. J Earth Syst Sci 120(3):423–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rather SA, Pandit AK (2002) Phytoplankton dynamics in Hokersar wetland, Kashmir. J Res Dev 2:25–46Google Scholar
  56. Rather SA, Bhat SA, Pandit AK (2001) Water quality of Hokersar, a typical wetland of Kashmir. J Res Dev 1:38–43Google Scholar
  57. Roeck ER, Verhoest NEC, Miya MH, Lievens H, Batelaan O, Thomas A, Brendonck L (2008) Remote sensing and wetland ecology: a South African case study. Sensors 8(5):3542–3556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Romshoo SA (2004) Radar remote sensing for monitoring of dynamic ecosystem processes related to biogeochemical exchanges in tropical peatlands. Vis Geosci 9(1):9–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Romshoo SA, Muslim M (2011) Geospatial modelling for assessing the nutrient load of a Himalayan lake. Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-011-0944-9
  60. Romshoo SA, Sumira J (2010) Geospatial tools for watershed characterization of the Dudhganga catchment, Jhelum basin. PG Diploma Dissertation (RS &GIS), Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India, 123pGoogle Scholar
  61. Romshoo SA, Ali N, Rashid I (2011) Geoinformatics for characterizing and understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics (1969–2008) of Hokarser wetland in Kashmir Himalayas. Int J Phys Sci 6(5):1026–1038Google Scholar
  62. Romshoo SA, Qadri T, Rashid I, Muslim M, Panigrahy S, Singh TS, Patel JG (2010) National Wetland Atlas: Jammu and Kashmir. SAC/RESA/AFEG/NWIA/ATLAS/16/2010. Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmadabad, p 176Google Scholar
  63. Saxena RK, Verma KS, Chary GR, Srivastava R, Barthwal AK (2000) IRC-IC data application in watershed characterization and management. Int J Remote Sens 21(17):3197–3208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schmid T, Koch M, Gumuzzio J (2005) Multisensor approach to determine changes of wetland characteristics in semiarid environments (Central Spain). IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 43(11):2516–2525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tanis FJ, Bourgeau-Chavez LL, Dobson MC (1994) Applications of ERS-1 SAR for coastal inundation. Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS’94), Pasadena, California, 8–12 August 1994, IEEE Catalog no. 94CH3378-7, pp. 1481–1483Google Scholar
  66. Touzi R, Deschamps A, Rother G (2007) Wetland characterization using polarimetric RADARSAT-2 capability. Can J Remote Sens 33(1):56–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tso B, Mather PM (2001) Classification methods for remotely sensed data. Taylor and Francis, UK, pp 186–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Uheda E, Kitoh S, Shiomi N (1999) Response of six Azolla species to transient high-temperature stress. Aquat Bot 64:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. UNEP (2007) Global environmental outlook 2007, Geo-4. Progress Press Ltd, Valletta, p 540Google Scholar
  70. Verburg P, Hecky RE, Kling H (2003) Ecological consequences of a century of warming in Lake Tanganyika. Science 301:505–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Viers JH, Rheinheimer DE (2011) Freshwater conservation options for a changing climate in California’s Sierra Nevada. Mar Freshw Res 62(3):266–278. doi: 10.1071/MF09286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vorosmarty CJ, McIntyre PB, Gessner MO, Dudgeon D, Prusevich A, Green P, Glidden S, Bunn SE, Sullivan CA, Liermann CR, Davies PM (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467:555–561. doi: 10.1038/nature09440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wetlands International (2007) The comprehensive management action plan on Wular lake, Kashmir. Wetlands International, South Asia final report, New Delhi, India, pp. 221Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of KashmirHazratbalIndia

Personalised recommendations