Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, Volume 6, Issue 10, pp 3693–3702 | Cite as

Terrestrial water dynamics in the lower Ganges—estimates from ENVISAT and GRACE

  • Haris Hasan KhanEmail author
  • Arina Khan
  • Shakeel Ahmed
  • Marie-Claude Gennero
  • Kien Do Minh
  • Anny Cazenave
Original Paper


In this study, the hydrodynamics of lower Ganges basin in India has been monitored using radar altimetry data from environmental satellite (ENVISAT) mission and microgravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. River stage time series have been constructed for different virtual stations on the lower Ganges. Time series for the integrated water volume changes from microgravity measurements have also been constructed to characterize the seasonal and interannual fluctuation patterns in water storage and flux. The ENVISAT dataset indicates an average seasonal river stage fluctuation of 8 m in the lower Ganges River. The GRACE dataset reveals a seasonal fluctuation ranging from 0.18 to 0.40 m in the vertically integrated total water storage in the lower Ganges basin. The two independent datasets show broad similarity in the lower Ganges basin and outline the importance of space-based techniques for monitoring continental water resources.


Altimetry ENVISAT GRACE Virtual station Ganges River stage Time series 



The first author wishes to acknowledge the French Embassy in India for the financial support (Cellules Mixtes de Recheche PhD Fellowship) during the visit to LEGOS at Toulouse, France for the accomplishment of this work.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haris Hasan Khan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Arina Khan
    • 3
  • Shakeel Ahmed
    • 1
  • Marie-Claude Gennero
    • 4
  • Kien Do Minh
    • 4
  • Anny Cazenave
    • 4
  1. 1.Indo-French Centre for Groundwater Research (IFCGR), National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), CSIRHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencePondicherry UniversityPondicherryIndia
  3. 3.Department of GeologyAMU (Aligarh Muslim University)AligarhIndia
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées (OMP)ToulouseFrance

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