, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 57–68 | Cite as

Zijn obese mensen eetverslaafd?

  • Ilse Nijs
  • Ingmar Franken

Hedendaagse eetverslavingstheorieën veronderstellen dat met name vet- en suikerrijk voedsel zich kan gedragen als een drug en dat, net als bij drugsverslaving, verstoringen in het hersenbeloningssysteem aan de basis liggen van excessief eetgedrag en obesitas. Dier- en mensonderzoek wijst op overeenkomsten tussen obesitas en drugsverslaving, bijvoorbeeld in de neurobiologische, cognitieve en subjectieve reactiviteit op respectievelijk voedsel- en drugsgerelateerde cues. Desondanks lijkt het onjuist om de hele obese populatie als eetverslaafd te bestempelen: huidige onderzoeksdesigns laten niet toe om hier een uitspraak over te doen en onderzoeksresultaten zijn niet altijd eenduidig. Een meer op verslaving lijkend eetprobleem lijkt zich te manifesteren bij obese mensen met een specifieke eetbuistoornis, gekenmerkt door compulsief eetbuigedrag met controleverlies.


  1. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Avena, N.M. (2010). The study of food addiction using animal models of binge eating. Appetite, 55, 734-737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avena, N.M., Rada, P. & Hoebel, B.G. (2008). Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 20-39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berridge, K.C. (2009). ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: brain substrates and roles in eating disorders. Physiology and Behavior, 97, 537-550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum, K., Braverman, E.R., Holder, J.M., Lubar, J.F., Monastra, V.J., Miller, D., e.a. (2000). Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32, 1-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum, K., Gardner, E., Oscar-Berman, M. & Gold, M. (2012). ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18, 113-118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boggiano, M.M., Chandler, P.C., Viana, J.B., Oswald, K.D., Maldonado, C.R. & Wauford, P.K. (2005). Combined dieting and stress evoke exaggerated responses to opioids in binge-eating rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 119, 1207-1214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coll, A.P., Farooqi, I.S. & O’Rahilly, S. (2007). The hormonal control of food intake. Cell, 129, 251-262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corwin, R.L., Avena, N.M. & Boggiano, M.M. (2011). Feeding and reward: perspectives from three rat models of binge eating. Physiology and Behavior, 104, 87-97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, C. & Carter, J.C. (2009). Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite, 53, 1-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, C., Levitan, R.D., Muglia, P., Bewell, C. & Kennedy, J.L. (2004). Decision-making deficits and overeating: a risk model for obesity. Obesity Research, 12, 929-935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Castro, J.M., Bellisle, F., Dalix A.-M. & Pearcy, S.M. (2000). Palatability and intake relationships in free-living humans characterization and independence of influence in North Americans. Physiology and Behavior, 70, 343-350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drewnowski, A., Krahn, D.D., Demitrack, M.A., Nairn, K. & Gosnell, B.A. (1995). Naoloxone, an opiate blocker, reduces the consumption of sweet high-fat foods in obese and lean female binge eaters. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 1206-1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Drummond, D.C. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96, 33-46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drummond, D.C. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96, 33-46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Field, M., Munafò, M.R. & Franken, I.H.A. (2009). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between attentional bias and subjective craving in substance abuse. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 589-607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garner, D.M. & Wooley, S.C. (1991). Confronting the failure of behavioral and dietary treatments of obesity. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 11, 729-780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, R.Z. & Volkow, N.D. (2002). Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1642-1652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gossop, M. (1992). Addiction: treatment and outcome. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 85, 469-472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G. & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Study. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348-358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Loeber, S., Grosshans, M., Korucuoglu, O., Vollmert, C., Vollstädt-Klein, S., Schneider, S. e.a. (2011). Impairment of inhibitory control in response to food-associated cues and attentional bias of obese participants and normal-weight controls. International Journal of Obesity, 36, 1334-1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maayan, L., Hoogendoorn, C., Sweat, V. & Convit, A. (2011). Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Obesity, 19, 1382-1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nederkoorn, C., Jansen, E., Mulkens, S. & Jansen, A. (2007). Impulsivity predicts treatment outcome in obese children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1071-1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nederkoorn, C., Smulders, F.T.Y., Havermans, R.C., Roefs, A. & Jansen, A. (2006). Impulsivity in obese women. Appetite, 47, 253-256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nijs, I.M.T. & Franken, I.H.A. (2012). Attentional processing of food cues in overweight and obese individuals. Current Obesity Reports, 1, 106-113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Noble, E.P. (2003). D2 dopamine receptor gene in psychatric and neurologic disorders and its phenotypes. American Journal of Medical Genetic Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 116B, 103-125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parylak, S.L., Koob, G.F. & Zorrilla, E.P. (2011). The dark side of food addiction. Physiology and Behavior, 104, 149-156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pignatti, R., Beriella, L., Albani, G., Mauro, A., Molinari, E. & Semenza, C. (2006). Decision-making in obesity: A study using the gambling task. Eating and Weight Disorders, 11, 126-132.Google Scholar
  29. Robbins, S.J., Ehrman, R.N., Childress, A.R. & O’Brien, C.P. (1997). Relationships among physiological and self-report responses produced by cocaine-related cues. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 157-167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson, T.E. & Berridge, K.C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews, 18, 247-291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rogers, P.J. & Smit, H.J. (2000). Food craving and food ‘addiction’: a critical review of the evidence from a biopsychosocial perspective. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 66, 3-14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schienle, A., Schäfer, A., Hermann, A. & Vaitl, D. (2008). Binge-eating disorder: Reward sensitivity and brain activation to images of food. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 654-661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schokker, D.F., Visscher, T.L.S., Nooyens, A.C.J., Baak, M.A. van & Seidell, J.C. (2007). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands. Obesity Reviews, 8, 101-107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Speakman, J.R. (2007). Gene environment interactions and the origin of the modern obesity epidemic: A novel ‘nonadaptive drift’ scenario. In T.C. Kirkham & S.J. Cooper (Eds.), Appetite and body weight: integrative systems and the development of anti-obesity drugs(pp. 301-322). London: Elsevier/AcademicPress.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Steiner, J.E., Glaser, D., Hawilo, M.E. & Berridge, K.C. (2001). Comparative expression of hedonic impact: affective reactions to taste by human infants and primates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 53-74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stice, E., Yokum, S., Bohon, C., Marti, N. & Smolen, A. (2010). Reward circuitry responsivity to food predicts future increases in body mass: Moderating effects of DRD2 and DRD4. NeuroImage, 50, 1618-1625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stice, E., Yokum, S., Burger, K.S., Epstein, L.H. & Small, D.M. (2011). Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 4360-4366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stoeckel, L.E., Kim, J., Weller, R.E., Cox, J.E., Cook, E.W. III & Horwitz, B. (2009). Effective connectivity of a reward network in obese women. Brain Research Bulletin, 79, 388-395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stoeckel, L.E., Weller, R.E., Cook, E.W., Twieg, D.B., Knowlton, R.C. & Cox, J.E. (2008). Widespread reward system activation in obese women in response to pictures of high-calorie foods. NeuroImage, 41, 636-647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Svaldi, J., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Peyk, P. & Blechert, J. (2010). Information processing of food pictures in binge eating disorder. Appetite, 55, 685-694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Volkow, N.D. & Wise, R.A. (2005). How can drug addiction help us understand obesity? Nature Neuroscience, 8, 555-560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Volkow, N.D., Fowler, J.S., Wang, G.-J., Hitzemann, R., Logan, J., Schlyer, D.J., e.a. (1993). Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers. Synapse, 14, 169-177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Volkow, N.D., Wang, G.-J. & Baler, R.D. (2011). Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 37-46, DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.11.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Volkow, N.D., Wang, G.J., Fowler, J.S. & Telang, F. (2008). Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363, 3191-3200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vollstädt-Klein, S., Loeber, S., Von der Goltz, C., Mann, K. & Kiefer, F. (2009). Avoidance of alcohol-related stimuli increases during the early stage of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 44, 458-463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang, G.-J., Geliebter, A., Volkow, N.D., Telang, F.W., Logan, J., Jayne, M.C. e.a. (2011). Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder. Obesity, 19, 1601-1608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, G.-J., Volkow, N.D., Logan, J., Pappas, N.R., Wong, C.T., Zhu, W., e.a. (2001). Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet, 357, 354-357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang, G.-J., Volkow, N.D., Telang, F., Jayne, M., Ma, J., Rao, M., e.a. (2004). Exposure to appetitive food stimuli markedly activates the human brain. NeuroImage, 21, 1790-1797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Westerterp, K.R. & Speakman, J.R. (2008). Physical activity energy expenditure has not declined since the 1980s and matches energy expenditures of wild mammals. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1256-1263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ziauddeen H., Farooqi, S.I. & Fletcher, P.C. (2012). Obesity and the brain: how convincing is the addiction model? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 279-286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn, Stafleu van Loghum 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilse Nijs
    • 1
  • Ingmar Franken
    • 2
  1. 1.Afdeling Kinder- en Jeugdpsychiatrie/-psychologieErasmus Medisch Centrum/Sophia KinderziekenhuisRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.klinische psychologieErasmus UniversiteitRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations