Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 374–392 | Cite as

E-mental health: state of the art

Artikel

Samenvatting

In dit artikel wordt een state-of-the art overzicht gegeven van onderzoek, met name klinische trials (RCT’s) en meta-analyses hiervan, naar de klinische en kosteneffectiviteit van online behandeling voor diverse psychische aandoeningen en leeftijdsgroepen. Niet alleen de effectiviteit van online cognitieve gedragstherapie (CGT) komt aan bod, ook wordt aandacht besteed aan andere therapeutische oriëntaties, zoals interpersoonlijke psychotherapie en psychodynamische psychotherapie. Op basis van het huidige onderzoek kan geconcludeerd worden dat online behandelinterventies alleen bewezen effectief zijn voor CGT bij depressie/depressieve symptomen, paniekstoornis en sociale fobie bij volwassenen. Vervolgens geeft het artikel een beeld van nieuwe ontwikkelingen op het gebied van e-mental health, zoals real life, real time-interventies. Tot slot wordt een aantal uitdagingen voor de toekomst genoemd, zoals meer nauwkeurig opgezette RCT’s naar de effecten van online CGT bij kinderen, adolescenten en ouderen. Daarnaast is het belangrijk om transdiagnostische interventies te onderzoeken en meer zicht te krijgen op de werkzame elementen van online interventieprogramma’s.

E-mental health: state of the art

Abstract

This article provides an overview of research, especially meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of internet-delivered treatment of different psychological conditions and age groups. The effectiveness of online cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy is discussed. Meta-analyses have consistently shown that online CBT is associated with significant reductions of measured symptoms of depression, panic disorder and social phobia in adults. Furthermore, this article addresses future directions in the field of e-mental health, such as conducting real life, real-time interventions. Finally, major challenges for the future are outlined, such as conducting more adequately designed RCTs on the effectiveness of online CBT in children, adolescents and elderly. There is also a need for conclusive research on clinical significance of online transdiagnostic interventions and to gain more insight into the working elements of online intervention programmes.

Literatuur

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (revision). American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(4 Suppl), 1–45.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, G., Cuijpers, P., Carlbring, P., Riper, H., & Hedman, E. (2014). Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behaviour therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry, 13, 288–295.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, G., Paxling, B., Roch-Norlund, P., Östman, G., Norgren, A., Almlöv, J., Georén, L., Breitholtz, E., Dahlin, M., Cuijpers, P., Carlbring, P., & Silverberg F. (2012). Internet-based psychodynamic vs. cognitive behavioural guided self-help for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81, 344–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., Ljótsson, B., & Hedman, E. (2013a). Guided internet-based CBT for common mental disorders. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 43, 223–233.Google Scholar
  5. Andersson, G., Hesser, H., Veilord, A., Svedling, L., Andersson, F., Sleman, O., Mauritzson, L., Sarkohi, A., Claesson, E., Zetterqvist, V., Lamminen, M., Eriksson, T., & Carlbring, P. (2013b). Randomised controlled non-inferiority trial with 3-year follow-up of internet-delivered versus face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 986–994.Google Scholar
  6. Baumeister, H., Reichler, L., Munzinger, M., & Lin, J. (2014). The impact of guidance on Internet-based mental health interventions: a systematic review. Internet Interventions, 1, 205–215.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ben-Zeev, D., Davis, K. E., Kaiser, S., Krzsos, I., & Drake, R. E. (2013). Mobile technologies among people with serious mental illness: opportunities for future services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40, 340–343.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blankers, M., Donker, T., & Riper, H. (2013). E-mental health in Nederland: wetenschappelijke evidentie en uitdagingen voor de praktijk. De Psycholoog, 45, 12–23.Google Scholar
  10. Blankers, M., Koeter, M. W., & Schippers, G. M. (2011). Internet therapy versus internet self-help versus no treatment for problematic alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blankers, M., Nabitz, U., Smit, F., Koeter, M. W., & Schippers, G. M. (2012). Economic evaluation of internet-based interventions for harmful alcohol use alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14, e134.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boettcher, J., Åström, V., Påhlsson, D., Schenström, O., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Internet-based mindfulness treatment for anxiety disorders: a randomised controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 45, 241–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burns, M. N., Begale, M., Duffecy, J., Gergle, D., Karr, C. J., Giangrande, E., & Mohr, D. C. (2011). Harnessing context sensing to develop a mobile intervention for depression. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13, e55.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlbring, P., & Smit, F. (2008). Randomized trial of internet-delivered self-help with telephone support for pathological gamblers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 1090–1094.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cavanagh, K., & Millings, A. (2012). Increasing engagement with computerised cognitive behavioural therapies. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Ambient Systems, 1, 1–11.Google Scholar
  16. Cuijpers, P., Donker, T., Straten, A. van, Li, J., & Andersson, G. (2010). Is guided self-help as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy for depression and anxiety disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1943–1957.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cuijpers, P., Geraedts, A. S., Oppen, P. van, Andersson, G., Markowitz, J. C., & Straten, A. van (2011). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 581–592.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cunningham, M., Rapee, R., & Lyneham, H. (2006). The cool teens cd-rom. A multimedia self-help program for adolescents with anxiety. Youth Studies Australia, 25, 50–56.Google Scholar
  19. Daansen, P. J. (2012). Van couch naar computer: een (psychotherapeutische) marketingvisie voor een succesvolle disseminatie van e-mental health in de ggz. Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie, 38, 442–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dear, B. F., Zou, J. B., Ali, S., Lorian, C. N., Johnston, L., Sheehan, J., Staples, L. G., Gandy, M., Fogliati, V. J., Klein, B., & Titov, N. (2015). Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 46, 206–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dirkx, J., Hebbrecht, M., Mooij, A., & Vermote, R. (2011). Handboek psychodynamiek: een verdiepende kijk op psychiatrie en psychotherapie. Utrecht: de Tijdstroom.Google Scholar
  22. Donker, T., Bennett, K., Bennett, A., Mackinnon, A., Straten, A. van, Cuijpers, P., Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M. (2013). Internet-delivered interpersonal psychotherapy versus internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depressive symptoms: randomized controlled noninferiority trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, e82.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Driessen, E., Cuijpers, P., Maat, S. C. de, Abbass, A. A., Jonghe, F. de, & Dekker, J. J. M. (2010). The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 25–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gainsbury, S., & Blaszczynski, A. (2011). A systematic review of internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 490–498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gay, V., Leijdekkers, P., Agcanas, J., Wong, F., & Wu, Q. (2013). CaptureMyEmotion: helping autistic children understand their emotions using facial expression recognition and mobile technologies. BLED 2013 Proceedings. Paper 10.Google Scholar
  26. Gottlieb, J., Romeo, K., Penn, D., Mueser, K., & Chiko, B. (2013). Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for auditory hallucinations in persons with psychosis: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 145, 82–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Granholm, E., Ben-Zeev, D., Link, P. C., Bradshaw, K. R., & Holden, J. L. (2012). Mobile assessment and treatment for schizophrenia (MATS). A pilot trial of an interactive text-messaging intervention for medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 414–425.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grist, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2013). Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for common mental health disorders, what works, for whom under what circumstances? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 43, 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gustafson, D., Shaw, B., Isham, A., Baker, T., Boyle, M., & Levy, M. (2011). Explicating an evidence-based, theoretically informed, mobile technology-based system to improve outcomes for people in recovery for alcohol dependence. Substance Use and Misuse, 46, 96–111.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hedman, E., Ljótsson, B., & Lindefors, N. (2012). Cognitive behavior therapy via the internet: a systematic review of applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 12, 745–764.Google Scholar
  31. Hedman, E., El Alaoui, S., Lindefors, N., Andersson, E., Rück, C., Ghaderi, A., Kaldo, V., Lekander, M., Andersson, G., & Ljótsson B. (2014). Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Internet- vs. group-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: 4-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 59, 20–29.Google Scholar
  32. Heinicke, B. E., Paxton, S. J., McLean, S. A., & Wertheim, E. H. (2007). Internet-delivered targeted group intervention for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 379–391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hektner, J. K., Schmidt, J. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Experience sampling method: Measuring the quality of everyday life. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Jacobsen, J. C., Hansen, J. L., Simonsen, S., Simonsen, E., & Gluud, C. (2012). Effects of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. Psychological Medicine, 42, 1343–1357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johansson, R., Ekbladh, S., Hebert, A., Lindström, M., Möller, S., Petitt, E., Poysti, S., Holmqvist Larsson, M., Rousseau, A., Carlbring, P., Cuijpers, P., & Andersson, G. (2012). Psychodynamic guided self-help for adult depression through the internet: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 7, e38021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johansson, R., Frederick, R. J., & Andersson, G. (2013). Using the internet to provide psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 41, 385–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnston, L., Titov, N., Andrews, G., Dear, B., & Spence, J. (2013). Comorbidity and internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 42, 180–192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kelders, S., Pots, W., Oskam, M. J., Bohlmeijer, E., & Gemert-Pijnen, J. van (2013). Development of a web-based intervention for the indicated prevention of depression. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 13, 26.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kelly, J., Gooding, P., Pratt, D., Ainsworth, J., Welford, M., & Tarrier, N. (2012). Intelligent real-time therapy: harnessing the power of machine learning to optimise the delivery of momentary cognitive-behavioural interventions. Journal of Mental Health, 21, 404–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kendall, P. C., & Hedtke, K. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious children: therapist manual (3. edn.). Ardmore: Workbook.Google Scholar
  41. Khanna, M. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for child anxiety: results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krieke, L. van der, Wunderink, L., Emerencia, A., Jonge, P. de (2014). E-mental health self-management for psychotic disorders: state of the art and future perspectives. Psychiatric Services, 65, 33–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lange, A., Ruwaard, J., & Schrieken, B. (2009). Hulpverlening voor psychische problematiek via het world wide web. De Psycholoog, 44, 634–640.Google Scholar
  44. Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Jaeger, U., Kächele, H., Kreische, R., Leweke, F., Rüger, U., Winkelbach, C., & Leibing, E. (2009). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 875–881.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Beutel, M. E., Herpertz, S., Hiller, W., Hoyer, J., Huesing, J., Joraschky, P., Nolting, B., Poehlmann, K., Ritter, V., Stangier, U., Strauss, B., Stuhldreher, N., Tefikow, S., Teismann, T., Willutzki, U., Wiltink, J., & Leibing, E. (2013). Psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 759–767.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lin, J., Lüking, M., Ebert, D. D., Buhrman, M., Andersson, G., & Baumeister, H. (2015). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a guided and unguided internet-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for chronic pain: study protocol for a three-armed randomised controlled trial. Internet Interventions, 2, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. March, S., Spence, S. H., & Donovan, C. L. (2009). The efficacy of an internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for child anxiety disorders. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 474–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Mihalopoulos, C., Kiropoulos, L., Shih, S. T., Gunn, J., Blashki, G., & Meadows, G. (2005). Exploratory economic analyses of two primary care mental health projects: Implications for sustainability. Medical Journal of Australia, 183, S73–S76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, P. G., & Miller, W. R. (2009). What should we be aiming for in the treatment of addiction? Addiction, 104, 685–686.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Milrod, B., Leon, A. C., Busch, F., Rudden, M., Schwalberg, M., Clarkin, J., Aronson, A., Singer, M., Turchin, W., Klass, E. T., Graf, E., Teres, J. J., Shear, M. K. (2007). A randomized controlled clinical trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 265–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Myin-Germeys, I., Birchwood, M., & Kwapil, T. (2011). From environment to therapy in psychosis: a real-world momentary assessment approach. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 244–247.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). (2007). Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care (amended). In NICE Clinical Practice Guideline 23. London: NICE.Google Scholar
  53. Nordgren, L. B., Hedman, E., Etienne, J., Bodin, J., Kadowaki, A., Eriksson, S., Lindkvist, E., Andersson, G., & Carlbring, P. (2014). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population: a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 59, 1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Os, J. van. (2014). De DSM-5 voorbij! Persoonlijke diagnostiek in een nieuwe ggz. Leusden: Diagnosis.Google Scholar
  55. Os, J. van, Kahn, R., Denys, D., Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. T. F., & Hoogendijk, A. M. (2012). ROM: gedragsnorm of dwangmaatregel? Overwegingen bij het themanummer over routine outcome monitoring. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 54, 245–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ost, L. G. (2008). Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: 40 years of progress. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 62, 5–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Postel, M., Witting, M., & Gemert-Pijnen, L. van (2013). Blended behandeling in de geestelijke gezondheidszorg. Directieve Therapie, 33, 210–221.Google Scholar
  58. Price, M., Yuen, E., Goetter, E., Herbert, J., Forman, E., Acierno, R. & Ruggiero, K. (2014). mHealth: a mechanism to deliver more accessible, more effective mental health care. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 21, 427–436.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Proudfoot, J., Klein, B., Barak, A., Carlbring, P., Cuijpers, P., Lange, A., Ritterband, L., & Andersson, G. (2011). Establishing guidelines for executing and reporting internet intervention research. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40, 82–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Richards, D., & Richardson, T. (2012). Computer-based psychological treatments for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 329–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Richards, D., Richardson, T., Timulak, L., & McElvaney, J. (2015). The efficacy of internet-delivered treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Internet Interventions, 2, 272–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Riper, H., Ballegooijen, W. van, Kooistra, L., Wit, J. de, & Donker, T. (2013). Preventie en e-mental-health: onderzoek dat leidt, technologie die verleidt, preventie die bereikt en beklijft. Kennissynthese 2013 in opdracht van ZonMw Preventieprogramma IV Den Haag. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit.Google Scholar
  63. Riper, H., Smit, F., Zanden, R. van der, Conijn, B., Kramer, J., Mutsaers, K., & Wammes, A. (2007). E-mental health: high tech, high touch, high trust. Programmeringsstudie e-mental health in opdracht van het ministerie van VWS. Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut.Google Scholar
  64. Riper, H., Spek, V., Ballegooijen, W. van, Ünlü, B., Ruyssenaars, B., Mulder, B. & Kamp, L. van der, (2009). Visual Screener for Common Mental Disorders (VS-CMD). Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut.Google Scholar
  65. Rizvi, S. L., Dimeff, L. A., Skutch, J., Carroll, D., & Linehan, M. M. (2011). A pilot study of the DBT coach: an interactive mobile phone application for individuals with borderline personality disorder and substance abuse disorder. Behavior Therapy, 42, 589–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ruwaard, J. (2013). The efficacy and effectiveness of online CBT. Proefschrift. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  67. Ruwaard, J., Lange, A., Schrieken, B., Dolan, C. V., & Emmelkamp, P. (2012). The effectiveness of online cognitive behavioral treatment in routine clinical practice. PloS One, 7, e40089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schalken, F. (2012). Whitepaper mHealth. Amsterdam: Stichting E-hulp.nl.Google Scholar
  69. Schalken, F., Blankers, M., Donker, T., Duinstra, U., Gemert, M. van, Hoogenhuyze, C. van, Limper, M., Meijer, E., Riper, H., Tilanus, W., & Wolters, W. (2013). Handboek online hulpverlening: met internet zorg en welzijn verbeteren. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shiffman, S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 1–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Slone, N. C., Reese, R. J., & McClellan, M. J. (2012). Telepsychology outcome research with children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Psychological Services, 9, 272–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Spek, V., Nyklícek, I., Smits, N., Cuijpers, P., Riper, H., Keyzer, J., & Pop, V. (2007). Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for subthreshold depression in people over 50 years old: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1797–1806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Spence, S. H., Holmes, J. M., March, S., & Lipp, O. V. (2006). The feasibility and outcome of clinic plus internet delivery of cognitive-behavior therapy for childhood anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 614–621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Spence, S. H., Donovan, C. L., & March, S., Gamble, A., Anderson, R. E., & Kenardy, J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of online versus clinic-based CBT for adolescent anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 629–642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Stasiak, K., Hatcher, S., Frampton, C., & Merry, S. N. (2014). A pilot double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of a prototype computer-based cognitive behavioural therapy program for adolescents with symptoms of depression. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 42, 385–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Tillfors, M., Andersson, G., Ekselius, L., Furmark, T., Lewenhaupt, S., Karlsson, A., & Carlbring, P. (2011). A randomized trial of internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder in high school students. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40, 147–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Titov, N., Dear, B. F., Ali, S., Zou, J. B., Lorian, C. N., Johnston, L., Terides, M. D., Kayrouz, R., Klein, B., Gandy, M., & Fogliati, V. J. (2015). Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of depression: a randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 46, 193–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ünlü, B., Riper, H., Straten, A. van, & Cuijpers, P. (2010). Guided self-help on the internet for Turkish migrants with depression: the design of a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 11, 101.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Vanheusden, K., Mulder, C. L., Ende, J. van der, Lenthe, F. J. van, Mackenbach, J. P., & Verhulst, F. C. (2008). Young adults face major barriers to seeking help from mental health services. Patient Education and Counseling, 73, 97–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Wouters, S., Thewissen, V., Zamani, K., Lechner, L., & Jacobs, N. (2013). Snackimpuls: een smartphone applicatie gericht op de impliciete determinanten van snackgedrag. De Psycholoog, 48, 52–59.Google Scholar
  81. Zanden, R. van der, Kramer, J., Gerrits, R., & Cuijpers, P. (2012). Effectiveness of an online group course for depression in adolescents and young adults: a randomized trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14, e86.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. ZonMw (2013). Actieplan eHealth implementatieonderzoek. Den Haag: ZonMw.Google Scholar
  83. Zwaanswijk, M., Ende, J. van der, Verhaak, P. F., Bensing, J. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (2003). Factors associated with adolescent mental health service need and utilization. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 692–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Stichting Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HeerlenNederland

Personalised recommendations