Advertisement

Spatial bus priority schemes, implementation challenges and needs: an overview and directions for future studies

  • Nima Dadashzadeh
  • Murat Ergun
Original Paper

Abstract

Urban transit systems consist of multiple modes of transport of which cars and buses make up the largest portion, particularly in developing countries. Thus, theories on the best means of allocating existing road spaces for cars and buses in city-centers and suburban corridors in order to improve operational transport efficiency has become a frontier research topic. Today, bus priority (BP) methods, as one of the most widely used Public Transport Priority (PTP) strategies, are commonly recognized as effective in lowering traffic congestion and reducing bus travel times. PT authorities, urban planners/designers, and researchers dealing with PT issues (i.e. buses), need to investigate existing BP methods in detail and assess relevant research before setting about designing or implementing new policies. Of course, evaluating such studies is a time-consuming process. In order to address this constraint, the present study proposes a general typology of existing BP methods and evaluates the challenges and requirements regarding their implementation by conducting a comprehensive literature review of existing studies related to PTP. Academic papers (theoretical, analytical, and simulation-based), technical reports, and design manual/guidelines in the context of both developed and developing countries have been searched as part of the literature review process. The study concludes by proposing two comparative summary tables of all spatial bus priority schemes in terms of “min. requirements to justify BP schemes” and “advantages and disadvantages of time-based and spatial BP treatments”. These may provide engineers, urban planners or transit policy-makers with an accessible guide with which to refer in the evaluation stage. However, future research is recommended in order to bridge existing gaps concerning conditions required for the successful implementation of spatial bus priority strategies.

Keywords

Bus priority Spatial treatments Bus lane Transit preferential treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is part of the Ph.D. thesis of the corresponding author entitled “Effects of PT priority methods on adjacent mixed traffic”. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their time, valuable comments and suggestions resulting in improving the quality of the present study.

References

  1. Abdelfatah A, Abdulwahid AR (2017) Impact of exclusive bus lanes on traffic performance in Urban Areas. In: Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering (CSEE’17). Barcelona, Spain, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  2. Al-Deek H, Sandt A, Alomari A, Hussain O (2017) A technical note on evaluating the effectiveness of bus rapid transit with transit signal priority. J Intell Transp Syst 21:227–238.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15472450.2017.1286987 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpkokin P, Ergun M (2012) Istanbul Metrobus: first intercontinental bus rapid transit. J Transp Geogr 24:58–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. APTA (2008) Public transportation fact book, 59th edn. American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Beirão G, Sarsfield Cabral JA (2007) Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: a qualitative study. Transp Policy 14:478–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2007.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benn HP (1995) TCRP Synthesis No. 10: bus route evaluation standards. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Bugg Z, Crisafi J, Lindstrom E, Ryus P (2016) Effect of transit preferential treatments on vehicle travel time. Transp Res Board 95th Annu Meet 1–17Google Scholar
  8. Burinskienė M, Gusarovienė M, Gabrulevičiūtė-Skebienė K (2014) The impact of public transport lanes on the operating speed of buses. In: The 9th International Conference “Environmental Engineering 2014.” Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Press “Technika” 2014, Vilnius, LithuaniaGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen C, Varaiya P, Kwon J (2005) An empirical assessment of traffic operations. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on transportation and traffic theory. Elsevier, College Park, MD, pp 105–124Google Scholar
  10. Chiabaut N, Xie X, Leclercq L (2012) Road capacity and travel times with bus lanes and intermittent priority activation. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2315:182–190.  https://doi.org/10.3141/2315-19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Currie G, Lai H (2008) Intermittent and dynamic transit lanes: melbourne, Australia, experience. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2072:49–56.  https://doi.org/10.3141/2072-06 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Currie G, Sarvi M, Young B (2007) A new approach to evaluating on-road public transport priority projects: balancing the demand for limited road-space. Transportation (Amst) 34:413–428.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-006-9107-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. D’Souza C, Hounsell NB, Shrestha BP (2012) Using automatic vehicle location (AVL) data for evaluation of bus priority at traffic signals. IET ITS Conf Road Transp Inf Control (RTIC 2012) 21–21.  https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2012.1550
  14. Danaher AR (2010) TCRP synthesis No. 83: bus and rail transit preferential treatments in mixed traffic. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Duduta N, Adriazola C, Wass C, Hidalgo D, Lindau LA (2012) Traffic safety on bus corridors. EMBARQ, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  16. Duerr P (2000) Dynamic right-of-way for transit vehicles: integrated modeling approach for optimizing signal control on mixed traffic arterials. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 1731:31–39.  https://doi.org/10.3141/1731-05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eichler M (2005) Bus lane with intermittent priority: assessment and design. University of California, Berkeley. Master ThesisGoogle Scholar
  18. Eichler M, Daganzo CF (2006) Bus lanes with intermittent priority: strategy formulae and an evaluation. Transp Res Part B Methodol 40:731–744.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2005.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fadaei Oshyani M, Cats O (2016) Evaluatıng the performance and benefıts of bus prıorıty, operatıon and control measures. In: Proceedings of the 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Transportation Research Record, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  20. Farid YZ, Christofa E, Collura J (2015) Dedicated bus and queue jumper lanes at signalized intersections with nearside bus stops. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2484:182–192.  https://doi.org/10.3141/2484-20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng W, Figliozzi M, Bertini RL (2015) Empirical evaluation of transit signal priority through fusion of heterogeneous transit and traffic signal data and novel performance measures. Transp Res Board 94th Annu Meet 500:  https://doi.org/10.3141/2488-03
  22. FHWA (2006) Bus-only shoulders: a transit advantage. In: Minnesota Dep. Transp. http://www.dot.state.mn.us/metro/teamtransit/pdf/bosupdate.pdf
  23. Furth P, Muller TH (2000) Conditional bus priority at signalized intersections: better service with less traffic disruption. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 1731:23–30.  https://doi.org/10.3141/1731-04 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. U.S. FWHA (2017) Active Demand Management. http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/atdm/approaches/adm.htm. Accessed 5 Apr 2017
  25. Gan A (2009) Design of transit signal priority at signalized intersections with queue jumper lanes. J Public Transp 12:117–132.  https://doi.org/10.3141/1925-27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gardner K, Melhuish T, McKenna D, Rice T (2006) The benefits of bus priority within the central London congestion charging zone. Association for European Transport and contributors, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Gardner K, D’Souza C, Hounsell N, Shrestha B, Bretherton D (2009) Interaction of buses and signals at road crossings—review of bus priority at traffic signals around the world, V2.0. International Association of Public Transport (UITP); Bus Committee, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  28. Gu W, Cassidy MJ (2013) Maximizing bus discharge flows from multi-berth stops by regulating exit maneuvers. Transp Res Part B Methodol 56:254–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2013.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gu W, Cassidy MJ, Gayah V, Ouyang Y (2013) Mitigating negative impacts of near-side bus stops on cars. Transp Res Part B Methodol 47:42–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2012.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gu W, Gayah VV, Cassidy MJ, Saade N (2014) On the impacts of bus stops near signalized intersections: models of car and bus delays. Transp Res Part B Methodol 68:123–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2014.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guler SI, Menendez M (2013) Empirical evaluation of bus and car delays at pre-signals. In: Proceedings of the 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference. Institute for Transport Planning and Systems, ETH Zurich, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  32. Guler SI, Menendez M (2014) Analytical formulation and empirical evaluation of pre-signals for bus priority. Transp Res Part B Methodol 64:41–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2014.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guler SI, Menendez M (2015) Pre-signals for bus priority: basic guidelines for implementation. Public Transp 7:339–354.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12469-015-0104-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Guler SI, Gayah VV, Menendez M (2016) Bus priority at signalized intersections with single-lane approaches: a novel pre-signal strategy. Transp Res Part C 63:51–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2015.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. HCM (2000) Highway capacity manual. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. HCM (2010) Highway capacity manual: concepts, vol 1, 5th edn. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  37. He H, Guler SI, Menendez M (2016) Adaptive control algorithm to provide bus priority with a pre-signal. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 64:28–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2016.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hensher DA (1998) The imbalance between car and public transport use in urban Australia: why does it exist? Transp Policy 5:193–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-070X(98)00022-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hensher DA, Waters WG (1994) Light rail and bus priority systems: choice or blind commitment? Res Transp Econ 3:139–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-8859(09)80008-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hounsell N, McDonald M (1988) Evaluation of bus lanes, TRRL Report No. 87. Transport and Road Research Labaratory, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Hounsell N, Shrestha B (2005) AVL based bus priority at traffic signals: a review and case study of architectures. Eur J Transp Infrastruct Res 5:13–29Google Scholar
  42. Ibarra-Rojas OJ, Delgado F, Giesen R, Munoz JC (2015) Planning, operation, and control of bus transport systems: a literature review. Transp Res Part B Methodol 77:38–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2015.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacques KST, Levinson HS (1997) TCRP No. 26: operational analysis of bus lanes on arterials. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. Jaensirisaka S, Klungboonkrongb P, Udomsri R (2013) Development of bus rapid transit (BRT) in Khon Kaen, Thailand. In: Proceedings of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation StudiesGoogle Scholar
  45. Joskowicz IF (2012) Dynamic Bus Lane, Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Texas at ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  46. Kittelson & Assoc Inc., Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc., KFH Group Inc., Texas A&M Transportation Institute, Arup (2013) TCRP NO. 165: transit capacity and quality of service manual, 3rd edn. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kwon J, Varaiya P (2008) Effectiveness of California’s high occupancy vehicle (HOV) system. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 16:98–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2007.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Levinson H (2001) Bus transit in the 21st century: some perspectives and prospects. Transp Res Rec 1760:42–46.  https://doi.org/10.3141/1760-06 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Levinson H, Adams C, Hoey W (1975) TCRP No. 155: bus use of highways planning and design guidelines. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  50. Levinson H, Zimmerman S, Clinger J, Rutherford G (2002) Bus rapid transit: an overview. J Public Transp 5:1–30.  https://doi.org/10.5038/2375-0901.5.2.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levinson HS, Zimmerman S, Clinger J, Gast J (2003) Bus rapid transit: synthesis of case studies. Transp Res Rec.  https://doi.org/10.3141/1841-01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lin Y, Yang X, Zou N, Franz M (2015) Transit signal priority control at signalized intersections: a comprehensive review. Transp Lett 7:168–180.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1942787514Y.0000000044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lin Y, Yang X, Zou N (2017) Passive transit signal priority for high transit demand: model formulation and strategy selection. Transp Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19427867.2017.1295899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Litman T (2015) When are bus lanes warranted? Considering economic efficiency, social equity and strategic planning goals. http://www.vtpi.org/blw.pdf
  55. Lu B, Viegas J (2003) Improving bus movement on predicted bus message. IFAC Proc 36:191–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-6670(17)32418-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ma W, Liu Y, Han B (2013) A rule-based model for integrated operation of bus priority signal timings and traveling speed. J Adv Transp 47:369–383.  https://doi.org/10.1002/atr.1213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mahendran A, Smith SF, Hebert M, Xie X-F (2014) Bus detection for adaptive traffic signal control. US DOT University Transportation Center, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  58. Martin P, Levinson HS, Texas Transportation Institute (2012) TCRP No. 151: a guide for implementing bus on shoulder (BOS) systems. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Menendez M, Daganzo CF (2007) Effects of HOV lanes on freeway bottlenecks. Transp Res Part B Methodol 41:809–822.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2007.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller MA (2009) Bus lanes/bus rapid transit systems on highways: review of the literature, California PATH Working Paper UCB-ITS-PWP-2009-1. California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  61. Mirchandani P, Lucas D (2004) Integrated transit priority and rail/emergency preemption in real-time traffic adaptive signal control. Intell Transp Syst 8:101–115.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15472450490437799 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mundy D, Trompet M, Cohen JM, Graham DJ (2017) The identification and management of bus priority schemes (A study of international experiences and best practices). Centre for Transport Studies Imperial College London, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. NACTO (2012) Urban street design guide. National Association of City Transportation Officials, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. NACTO (2016) Transit street design guide, 2nd edn. National Association of City Transportation Officials, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  65. Neves J (2006) The impacts of bus lanes on urban traffic environment. University of Porto, Master ThesisGoogle Scholar
  66. Olstam J, Habibovic A, Anund A (2015) Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden—a pre-study. Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  67. Princeton JF, Cohen S (2010) Simulation, implementation and evaluation of a dedicated lane on an Urban motorway. In: 12th World Conference for Transportation Research. Lisbon, Portugal, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  68. PTV (2017) PTV VISSIM 10 user manual, vol 10. Las, PTV Planug Transport Verkehr AGGoogle Scholar
  69. Rahman F, Sakamoto K, Kubota H (2007) Decision making process of traffic calming devices; a comparative study. IATSS Res 31:94–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0386-1112(14)60227-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sakamoto K, Abhayantha C, Kubota H (2007) Effectiveness of bus priority lane as countermeasure for congestion. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2034:103–111.  https://doi.org/10.3141/2034-12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Skabardonis A (1998) Control strategies for transit priority. California PATH research report, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  72. Skabardonis A (2000) Control strategies for transit priority. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 1727:20–26.  https://doi.org/10.3141/1727-03 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith HR, Hemily B, Ivanovic M, Inc Gannett Fleming (2005) Transit signal priority: a planning and implementation handbook. ITS America Technology Transforming Transportation, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart R, Wong R (2013) Guidelines for planning and implementation of transit priority measures (TPM) in Urban Areas. Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada. Transportation Association of Canada, Ottawa, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  75. Sunkari SR, Beasley P, Urbanik T, Fambro D (1994) A model to evaluate the impact of bus priority on signalized intersection. In: 74th Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  76. Thakuriah P, Metaxatos P, Mohammadian A (2014) Bus Riding on Shoulders. Illinois Center for Transportation Series No. 10-073Google Scholar
  77. Todd M, Barth M, Eichler M, Daganzo CF, Shaheen SA (2006) Enhanced transit strategies: bus lanes with intermittent priority and ITS technology architectures for TOD enhancement. California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  78. Townes MS, Aoyagi G, Barnes L, Blair GL, Garber C, Hunter-zaworski K, Monroe D (1998) TCRP No. 33: transit-friendly streets: design and traffic management strategies to support livable communities. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  79. Truong LT, Currie G, Sarvi M (2017a) Analytical and simulation approaches to understand combined effects of transit signal priority and road-space priority measures. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 74:275–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2016.11.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Truong LT, Currie G, Wallace M, De Gruyter C (2017b) Does combining transit signal priority with dedicated bus lanes or queue jump lanes at multiple intersections create multiplier effects? Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2647:80–92.  https://doi.org/10.3141/2647-10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. UK Department for Transport (2003) Traffic control system design for all purpose roads (compendium of examples). Crown, HantsGoogle Scholar
  82. Varaiya P, Kurzhanskiy A (2010) Active traffic management: approaches: active transportation and demand management—FHWA operations. In: FHWA. https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/atdm/approaches/atm.htm. Accessed 05 Apr 2017
  83. Viegas JMJ, Lu B (1997) Traffic control system with intermittent bus lanes. IFAC Transp Syst Proc.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-6670(17)43930-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Viegas J, Lu B (2001) Widening the scope for bus priority with intermittent bus lanes. Transp Plan Technol 24:87–110.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03081060108717662 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Viegas J, Lu B (2004) The intermittent bus lane signals setting within an area. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 12:453–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2004.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Viegas J, Lu B, Vieira J, Roque R (2006) Demonstration of the intermittent bus lane in Lisbon. IFAC Proc 39:239–244.  https://doi.org/10.3182/20060829-3-NL-2908.00042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Weinstein AA, Goldman T, Hannaford N (2013) Shared-use bus priority lanes on city streets: approaches to access and enforcement. J Public Transp 16:25–41.  https://doi.org/10.5038/2375-0901.16.4.2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wu J, Hounsell N (1998) Bus priority using pre-signals. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 32:563–583.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(98)00008-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wu D, Deng W, Song Y, Wang J, Kong D (2017) Evaluating operational effects of bus lane with intermittent priority under connected vehicle environments. Discret Dyn Nat Soc.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1659176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Xie X, Chiabaut N, Leclercq L (2012) Improving bus transit in cities with appropriate dynamic lane allocating strategies. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 48:1472–1481.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.1123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhao J, Liu Y (2016) Integrated signal optimization and non-traditional lane assignment for urban freeway off-ramp congestion mitigation. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 73:219–238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2016.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhou G, Gan A, Shen LD (2007) Optimization of adaptive transit signal priority using parallel genetic algorithm. Tsinghua Sci Technol 12:131–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1007-0214(07)70020-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhu HB (2010) Numerical study of Urban traffic flow with dedicated bus lane and intermittent bus lane. Phys A 389:3134–3139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2010.03.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zlatkovic M, Stevanovic A, Reza RMZ (2013) Effects of Queue Jumpers and Transit Signal Priority on Bus Rapid Transit. In: Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting. Transportation Research Board, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  95. Zyryanov V, Mironchuk A (2012) Simulation study of intermittent bus lane and bus signal priority strategy. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 48:1464–1471.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.1122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Transportation Eng Ph.D. ProgramIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Transportation Eng. Division, Civil Engineering FacultyIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Traffic Technical Institute, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations