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Bijblijven

, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 616–633 | Cite as

Integrale psychiatrie: theorie en praktijk

  • Rogier Hoenders
  • Stynke Castelein
Article

Samenvatting

Eind jaren negentig werd door een Amerikaans consortium van acht academische ziekenhuizen een nieuw concept gelanceerd: integrale geneeskunde (‘integrative medicine’). Integrale geneeskunde stelt 1) de therapeutische relatie tussen patiënt en hulpverlener weer centraal; 2) kijkt naar de gehele mens; 3) maakt op basis van de drie principes van evidence-based medicine (EBM: bewijs voor effectiviteit, professionele expertise en wensen en voorkeuren patiënt) gebruik van alle geschikte therapeutische benaderingen, gezondheidszorgprofessionals en disciplines om zo; 4) tot een optimale gezondheid en een optimaal herstel te komen. Vandaag de dag zijn 74 medisch-academische gezondheidscentra (waaronder Harvard, Stanford, Mayo Clinic) actief lid van het consortium.

In 2007 werd integrale geneeskunde binnen de Nederlandse geestelijke gezondheidszorg (integrale psychiatrie) door het Centrum Integrale Psychiatrie (CIP) van Lentis geïntroduceerd. Sindsdien is er sprake van een gestage groei. De belangstelling voor integrale geneeskunde en integrale psychiatrie groeit, doordat het elementen bevat die steeds meer ingang vinden in de geneeskunde zoals samen beslissen, de patiënt centraal, een persoonlijke benadering, focus op gezonde leefstijl, positieve gezondheid en omdat het aansluit bij de tijdgeest.

Een integrale benadering binnen de (geestelijke) gezondheidszorg is van belang, omdat deze mogelijk oplossingen biedt voor de hedendaagse problemen in de (geestelijke) gezondheidszorg. In de integrale psychiatrie wordt, naast reguliere behandelingen, veel aandacht besteed aan een gezonde leefstijl en wordt onder strikte voorwaarden een selectie van complementaire behandelwijzen toegepast. Alternatieve behandelingen worden niet aangeboden, maar patiënten die dat wensen krijgen wel advies aan de hand van kwaliteitscriteria. Het CIP heeft hiervoor een protocol opgesteld. Tevens wil het CIP de patiënt zo beschermen tegen kwakzalverij, misbruik en valse hoop. De methodiek staat in Nederland echter nog in de kinderschoenen en wordt daarom steeds vergezeld van wetenschappelijke evaluatie en onderzoek. In deze bijdrage worden de theorie en praktijk van integrale psychiatrie en het onderzoek naar uitkomsten toegelicht en geïllustreerd aan de hand van een casus.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GroningenNederland

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