Fundamentals and Potential of Magnetic Particle Imaging
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Cardiovascular interventions are standard treatment for numerous cardiovascular conditions and require high fidelity imaging tools to accurately visualize both vessels and interventional devices. Currently, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the standard method for peripheral arterial angiography. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality, free of ionizing radiation, that utilizes static and oscillating magnetic fields to provide high temporal resolution, sub-millimeter spatial resolution images and high sensitivity. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) are used as tracers in MPI and signals are based on non-linear magnetization characteristics of those SPIOs. Regarding the magnetic moment of used tracers in MPI imaging is much faster in MPI, compared to imaging in CT and MRI. This makes MPI also very attractive for cardiovascular imaging and cardiovascular interventions. First in vivo visualization of a beating mouse heart demonstrated the feasibility of the visualization of the cardiovascular system by MPI. Different scanner designs and acquisition methods have already emerged addressing the requirements of cardiovascular interventions. Early studies have demonstrated MPI as an interesting and promising cardiovascular imaging modality. Technical improvement in hardware MPI imaging systems are currently being addressed in ongoing research which will facilitate former image acquisition with higher resolution in larger animals and/or human.
KeywordsMagnetic particle imaging (MPI) Principle Cardiovascular interventions Tracer
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under grant number 13N11090 and of the European Union and the State Schleswig-Holstein (Programme for the Future – Economy) under grant number 122-10-004. Moreover, the authors express their gratitude towards Philips Technologie GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Hamburg, Germany for the photo of the experimental MPI setup and also towards Ksenija Gräfe and Timo F. Sattel, Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Germany for the photo of the single-sided MPI scanner. The construction of the single-sided MPI scanner at the Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck is financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under grant number 01EZ0912. Last but not least the authors express their gratitude towards Jürgen Weizenecker et al. and the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine for granting permission for the use of Fig. 4 from “Three-dimensional in vivo real-time Magnetic Particle Imaging”, Phys Med Biol 2009 Mar 7;54(5):L1–L10 (Fig. 2, L4). doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/54/5/L01. Epub 2009 Feb 10.
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Conflict of Interest
Robert L. Duschka, MD reported receiving grants from German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (#13N11090) and from the European Union and the State Schleswig-Holstein (Programme for the Future-Economy) (#122-10-004).
Dr. med. Julian Haegele, MD reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Dipl.-Phys. (Med.) Hanne Wojtczyk reported receiving grants from German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (#13N11090) and from the European Union and the State Schleswig-Holstein (Programme for the Future-Economy) (#122-10-004).
Prof. Dr. med. Joerg Barkhausen, MD reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
PD. Dr. med. Florian M. Vogt, MD reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Thorsten M. Buzug reported receiving grants from German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (#13N11090 and #01EZ0912) and from the European Union and the State Schleswig-Holstein (Programme for the Future-Economy) (#122-10-004).
Dr. rer. nat. Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug reported no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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