Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp 303–316 | Cite as

Imaging Heart Failure in 2010

  • Ernesto E. Salcedo
  • Jamaluddin Moloo
  • Robert Quaife
  • Eugene Wolfel
Article

Abstract

Heart failure is a common and serious public health problem in industrialized countries. The epidemics of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary disease are contributing to the increasing prevalence of heart failure. The diagnosis of heart failure is based on a detailed history and a thorough physical examination. Echocardiography plays a central role in aiding in the diagnosis and characterization of heart failure and in directing its management. This review highlights recent advances in echocardiography in relation to heart failure. Three-dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and speckle tracking echocardiography represent recent developments in echocardiography relevant to heart failure and as such are emphasized in this review. Advanced cardiac imaging includes nuclear cardiac imaging, cardiac CT, and cardiac MRI, and they also play an important role in heart failure management; in this review we emphasize their application in heart failure secondary to ischemic heart disease.

Keywords

Heart failure Cardiac imaging Echocardiography 

Notes

Disclosure

Dr. Salcedo has been a consultant for and received grants from Philips Medical.

References

Papers with particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    • Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al.: 2009 Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Developed in Collaboration With the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009, 53:e1–e90. This key article provides current guidelines for the diagnosis and management of HF.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lang RM, Bierig M, Devereux RB, et al.: Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2005, 18:1440–1463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mulvagh SL, Rakowski H, Vannan MA, et al.: American Society of Echocardiography Consensus Statement on the Clinical Applications of Ultrasonic Contrast Agents in Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008, 21:1179–1201; quiz 1281.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    • Nagueh SF, Appleton CP, Gillebert TC, et al.: Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009, 22:107–133. This key review article highlights the use of echocardiography for the evaluation of diastolic dysfunction.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abraham J, Abraham TP: The role of echocardiography in hemodynamic assessment in heart failure. Heart Fail Clin 2009, 5:191–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zoghbi WA, Enriquez-Sarano M, Foster E, et al.: Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003, 16:777–802.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goda A, Yamashita T, Suzuki S, et al.: Heart failure with preserved versus reduced left ventricular systolic function: A prospective cohort of Shinken Database 2004–2005. J Cardiol 2010, 55:108–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ristow B, Ali S, Na B, et al.: Predicting heart failure hospitalization and mortality by quantitative echocardiography: Is body surface area the indexing method of choice? The Heart and Soul Study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010, In press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    •• Mor-Avi V, Jenkins C, Kuhl HP, et al.: Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular volumes: multicenter study for validation with magnetic resonance imaging and investigation of sources of error. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2008, 14:413–423. This is a key article on the value of 3D echocardiography for the quantification of LV volumes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    •• Geyer H, Caracciolo G, Abe H, et al.: Assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography: fundamentals and clinical applications. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010, 23:351–369; quiz 453–455. This is a state of the art review on the basis and clinical applications of speckle tracking echocardiography.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marwick TH, Leano RL, Brown J, et al.: Myocardial strain measurement with 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography: definition of normal range. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009, 2:80–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mogelvang R, Sogaard P, Pedersen SA, et al.: Tissue Doppler echocardiography in persons with hypertension, diabetes, or ischaemic heart disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Heart J 2009, 30:731–739.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kannel WB, Hjortland M, Castelli WP: Role of diabetes in congestive heart failure: the Framingham study. Am J Cardiol 1974, 34:29–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Asghar O, Al-Sunni A, Khavandi K, et al.: Diabetic cardiomyopathy. Clin Sci (Lond) 2009, 116:741–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schannwell CM, Schneppenheim M, Perings S, et al.: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as an early manifestation of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Cardiology 2002, 98:33–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Svealv BG, Olofsson EL, Andersson B: Ventricular long-axis function is of major importance for long-term survival in patients with heart failure. Heart 2008, 94:284–289.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stanton T, Leano R, Marwick TH: Prediction of all-cause mortality from global longitudinal speckle strain: comparison with ejection fraction and wall motion scoring. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2009, 2:356–364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stefanidis A, Bousboulas S, Kalafatis J, et al.: Left ventricular anatomical and functional changes with ageing in type 2 diabetic adults. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009, 10:647–653.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Quinones MA, Greenberg BH, Kopelen HA, et al.: Echocardiographic predictors of clinical outcome in patients with left ventricular dysfunction enrolled in the SOLVD registry and trials: significance of left ventricular hypertrophy. Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 35:1237–1244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    • Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Chatterjee K, et al.: 2008 focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1998 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease). Endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008, 52:e1–142. This article provides current guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    • Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E, et al.: Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 2008, 29:270–276. This position statement article from Europe presents an alternative to the American classification of cardiomyopathies.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thomas DE, Wheeler R, Yousef ZR, Masani ND: The role of echocardiography in guiding management in dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009, 10:iii15–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bellavia D, Michelena HI, Martinez M, et al.: Speckle myocardial imaging modalities for early detection of myocardial impairment in isolated left ventricular non-compaction. Heart 2010, 96:440–447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klein AL, Hatle LK, Taliercio CP, et al.: Serial Doppler echocardiographic follow-up of left ventricular diastolic function in cardiac amyloidosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990, 16:1135–1141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    • Afonso LC, Bernal J, Bax JJ, Abraham TP: Echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the role of conventional and emerging technologies. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2008, 1:787–800. This is an elegant review of contemporary echocardiographic methods used in the diagnosis and management of patients with HCM.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghio S, Revera M, Mori F, et al.: Regional abnormalities of myocardial deformation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: correlations with delayed enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance. Eur J Heart Fail 2009, 11:952–957.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Teske AJ, Cox MG, De Boeck BW, et al.: Echocardiographic tissue deformation imaging quantifies abnormal regional right ventricular function in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009, 22:920–927.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tops LF, Prakasa K, Tandri H, et al.: Prevalence and pathophysiologic attributes of ventricular dyssynchrony in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009, 54:445–451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Underwood SR, Anagnostopoulos C, Cerqueira M, et al.: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2004, 31:261–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller JM, Rochitte CE, Dewey M, et al.: Diagnostic performance of coronary angiography by 64-row CT. N Engl J Med 2008, 359:2324–2336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schinkel AF, Bax JJ, Poldermans D, et al.: Hibernating myocardium: diagnosis and patient outcomes. Curr Probl Cardiol 2007, 32:375–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    • Raman S: The hypertensive heart. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010, 55:6. This is a contemporary review of the hypertensive heart. This review emphasizes the role of cardiac imaging in detecting myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and ischemia, as well as the recognition of atrial myopathy and aortopathy as part of the hypertensive heart.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schillaci G, Verdecchia P, Porcellati C, et al.: Continuous relation between left ventricular mass and cardiovascular risk in essential hypertension. Hypertension 2000, 35:580–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    • Soliman OI, Kirschbaum SW, van Dalen BM, et al.: Accuracy and reproducibility of quantitation of left ventricular function by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography versus cardiac magnetic resonance. Am J Cardiol 2008, 102:778–783. This article illustrates why conventional 2D echocardiography methods are being replaced by 3D echocardiography for a more precise measurement of LV mass.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grothues F, Smith GC, Moon JC, et al.: Comparison of interstudy reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance with two-dimensional echocardiography in normal subjects and in patients with heart failure or left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol 2002, 90:29–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mizuno R, Fujimoto S, Saito Y, Nakamura S: Non-invasive quantitation of myocardial fibrosis using combined tissue harmonic imaging and integrated backscatter analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiology 2007, 108:11–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rudolph A, Abdel-Aty H, Bohl S, et al.: Noninvasive detection of fibrosis applying contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy relation to remodeling. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009, 53:284–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kurt M, Wang J, Torre-Amione G, Nagueh SF: Left atrial function in diastolic heart failure. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2009, 2:10–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Agha SA, Kalogeropoulos AP, Shih J, et al.: Echocardiography and risk prediction in advanced heart failure: incremental value over clinical markers. J Card Fail 2009, 15:586–592.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    • Temporelli PL, Scapellato F, Eleuteri E, et al.: Doppler echocardiography in advanced systolic heart failure: a noninvasive alternative to Swan-Ganz catheter. Circ Heart Fail 2010, In press. In this article it was demonstrated that Doppler echocardiography offers a valid alternative to invasive cardiac catheterization for the comprehensive hemodynamic assessment of patients with advanced HF.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Verhaert D, Mullens W, Borowski AG, et al.: Right ventricular response to intensive medical therapy in advanced decompensated heart failure. Circ Heart Fail 2010, In press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Leibundgut G, Rohner A, Grize L, et al.: Dynamic assessment of right ventricular volumes and function by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: a comparison study with magnetic resonance imaging in 100 adult patients. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010, 23:116–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liodakis E, Sharef OA, Dawson D, Nihoyannopoulos P: The use of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography for assessing mechanical synchronicity. Heart 2009, 95:1865–1871.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bruch C, Schmermund A, Marin D, et al.: Tei-index in patients with mild-to-moderate congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J 2000, 21:1888–1895.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kolias TJ, Aaronson KD, Armstrong WF: Doppler-derived dP/dt and -dP/dt predict survival in congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 36:1594–1599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Russel IK, Gotte MJ, Bronzwaer JG, et al.: Left ventricular torsion: an expanding role in the analysis of myocardial dysfunction. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009, 2:648–655.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Di Bello V, Giorgi D, Pedrinelli R, et al.: Early impairment of myocardial blood flow reserve in men with essential hypertension: a quantitative myocardial contrast echocardiography study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004, 17:1037–1043.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stevens SM, Farzaneh-Far R, Na B, et al.: Development of an echocardiographic risk-stratification index to predict heart failure in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the Heart and Soul study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009, 2:11–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Takasaki K, Gillinov AM, Yamano T, et al.: Detection of left ventricular dysfunction with Tei index in normal ejection fraction patients with mitral regurgitation before mitral valve surgery. Am J Cardiol 2009, 103:1011–1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bistola V, Parissis JT, Paraskevaidis I, et al.: Prognostic value of tissue Doppler right ventricular systolic and diastolic function indexes combined with plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with advanced heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2010, 105:249–254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Meluzin J, Spinarova L, Hude P, et al.: Left ventricular mechanics in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: systolic-diastolic coupling and torsion. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009, 22:486–493.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Butz T, Piper C, Langer C, et al.: Diagnostic superiority of a combined assessment of the systolic and early diastolic mitral annular velocities by tissue Doppler imaging for the differentiation of restrictive cardiomyopathy from constrictive pericarditis. Clin Res Cardiol 2010, 99:207–215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim H, Jun DW, Cho YK, et al.: The correlation of left atrial volume index to the level of N-terminal pro-BNP in heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction. Echocardiography 2008, 25:961–967.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lin FY, Devereux RB, Roman MJ, et al.: Cardiac chamber volumes, function, and mass as determined by 64-multidetector row computed tomography: mean values among healthy adults free of hypertension and obesity. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2008, 1:782–786.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gorcsan J 3rd, Abraham T, Agler DA, et al.: Echocardiography for cardiac resynchronization therapy: recommendations for performance and reporting—a report from the American Society of Echocardiography Dyssynchrony Writing Group endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008, 21:191–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernesto E. Salcedo
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jamaluddin Moloo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Robert Quaife
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eugene Wolfel
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Colorado DenverDenverUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Colorado DenverDenverUSA
  3. 3.AuroraUSA

Personalised recommendations