Advertisement

Review of the Analytical Methods for and Clinical Impact of Additives and Flavors Used in Electronic Cigarettes

  • Vasudha Bansal
  • Beshare Hashemi
  • Nadeem Raza
  • Ki-Hyun KimEmail author
  • Waseem Raza
  • Pawan Kumar
  • Richard J. C. Brown
Review Paper
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently become very popular among the population due to the various flavors available for vaping products. Consequently, manufacturers are trying to attract more users through the addition of various additives including nicotine, new flavors, and aromas. However, the inhalation of unknown and untested chemicals may cause health problems. Therefore, more clinical reports need to be collected for standardization of ECs for their effective regulation. However, detailed compositional information for EC additives is not commonly available. The aim of this review is, therefore, to study the state-of-the-art methods that can be employed for the quantitative analysis of the composition of electronic cigarettes with respect to these additives and flavors along with the basic cigarette ingredient like nicotine (both before and after consumption). In addition, efforts have also been made to address the clinical impacts of vaping EC and its additives on both the organ and cellular level. It was found that the effect of flavorings in EC is clearly associated with pathogenicity at the molecular level and need of standardization of the usage of EC and its flavorings is urgently needed.

Keywords

Electronic cigarettes Types of flavor Aerosol analysis Method development Additives Clinical effects 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The lead author, VB, thanks SERB, New Delhi for funding the young scientist project (YSS/2015/001776). The corresponding author (KHK) acknowledges support made in part by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No: 2016R1E1A1A01940995). This study was supported by a grant (Grant No: 14182MFDS977) from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Korea in 2017.

References

  1. Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC (2015) Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2, 3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antosz FJ, Xiang Y, Diaz AR, Jensen AJ (2012) The use of total reflectance X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for the determination of metals in the pharmaceutical industry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 62:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aszyk J, Kubica P, Kot-Wasik A, Namieśnik J, Wasik A (2017a) Comprehensive determination of flavouring additives and nicotine in e-cigarette refill solutions. Part I: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. J Chromatogr A 1519:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aszyk J, Woźniak MK, Kubica P, Kot-Wasik A, Namieśnik J, Wasik A (2017b) Comprehensive determination of flavouring additives and nicotine in e-cigarette refill solutions. Part II: Gas-chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. J Chromatogr A 1517:156–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahl V, Lin S, Xu N, Davis B, Wang Y-H, Talbot P (2012) Comparison of electronic cigarette refill fluid cytotoxicity using embryonic and adult models. Reproductive Toxicology 34:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bansal V, Kim K-H (2016) Review on quantitation methods for hazardous pollutants released by e-cigarette (EC) smoking TrAC. Trends Anal Chem 78:120–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrington-Trimis JL, Samet JM, McConnell R (2014) Flavorings in electronic cigarettes: an unrecognized respiratory health hazard? JAMA 312:2493–2494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Battista L et al (2013) Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes. Am Heart AssocGoogle Scholar
  9. Beauval N et al (2016) Trace elements in e-liquids-development and validation of an ICP-MS method for the analysis of electronic cigarette refills. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 79:144–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Behar R, Davis B, Wang Y, Bahl V, Lin S, Talbot P (2014) Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids. Toxicology In Vitro 28:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatnagar A, Whitsel LP, Ribisl KM, Bullen C, Chaloupka F, Piano MR, Robertson RM, McAuley T, Goff D, Benowitz N (2014) Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 130(16):1418–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blair SL, Epstein SA, Nizkorodov SA, Staimer N (2015) A real-time fast-flow tube study of VOC and particulate emissions from electronic, potentially reduced-harm, conventional, and reference cigarettes. Aerosol Sci Technol 49:816–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. BM Association (2017) E-cigarettes: balancing risks and opportunities. BMA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Campagna D et al (2016) Changes in breathomics from a 1-year randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes. Eur J Clin Investig 46:698–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caponnetto P, Campagna D, Papale G, Russo C, Polosa R (2012) The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes. Expert Rev Respir Med 6:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter CM, Wayne GF, Pauly JL, Koh HK, Connolly GN (2005) New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies. Health Aff 24:1601–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cervellati F et al (2014) Comparative effects between electronic and cigarette smoke in human keratinocytes and epithelial lung cells. Toxicol In Vitro 28:999–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cho Y-H, Shin H-S (2015) Use of a gas-tight syringe sampling method for the determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in E-cigarette aerosols by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Methods 7:4472–4480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choi K, Fabian L, Mottey N, Corbett A, Forster J (2012) Young adults’ favorable perceptions of snus, dissolvable tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes: findings from a focus group study. Am J Public Health 102:2088–2093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cibella F et al (2016) Lung function and respiratory symptoms in a randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes. Clin Sci CS20160268Google Scholar
  21. Conklin DJ et al (2018) Electronic cigarette-generated aldehydes: the contribution of e-liquid components to their formation and the use of urinary aldehyde metabolites as biomarkers of exposure. Aerosol Sci Technol 52:1219–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Conner M et al (2018) Do electronic cigarettes increase cigarette smoking in UK adolescents? Evidence from a 12-month prospective study. Tobacco control 27:365–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooke A, Fergeson J, Bulkhi A, Casale TB (2015) The electronic cigarette: the good, the bad, and the ugly. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 3:498–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Czogala J, Goniewicz ML, Fidelus B, Zielinska-Danch W, Travers MJ, Sobczak A (2013) Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 16:655–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dai J, Kim K-H, Szulejko JE, Jo S-H (2017) A simple method for the parallel quantification of nicotine and major solvent components in electronic cigarette liquids and vaped aerosols. Microchem J 133:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dawkins L, Corcoran O (2014) Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users. Psychopharmacology 231:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration (2016) Deeming tobacco products to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the sale and distribution of tobacco products and required warning statements for tobacco products. https://federalregister.gov/a/2016-10685
  28. Egilman DS, Schilling JH (2012) Bronchiolitis obliterans and consumer exposure to butter-flavored microwave popcorn: a case series. Int J Occup Environ Health 18:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El-hellani A et al (2016) Nicotine and carbonyl emissions from popular electronic cigarette products: correlation to liquid composition and design characteristics. Nicotine Tob Res 20:215–223Google Scholar
  30. Erickson BE (2015) Boom in E-cigarettes sparks debate. Chem Eng News 93:10–13Google Scholar
  31. Fagan P et al (2017) Sugar and aldehyde content in flavored electronic cigarette liquids. Nicotine Tob Res 20:985–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Famele M, Ferranti C, Abenavoli C, Palleschi L, Mancinelli R, Draisci R (2014) The chemical components of electronic cigarette cartridges and refill fluids: review of analytical methods. Nicotine Tob Res 17:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farsalinos KE, Voudris V (2018) Do flavouring compounds contribute to aldehyde emissions in e-cigarettes? Food Chem Toxicol 115:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Farsalinos KE et al (2013) Comparison of the cytotoxic potential of cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette vapour extract on cultured myocardial cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:5146–5162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Farsalinos KE, Kistler KA, Gillman G, Voudris V (2014) Evaluation of electronic cigarette liquids and aerosol for the presence of selected inhalation toxins. Nicotine Tob Res 17:168–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farsalinos KE, Gillman G, Poulas K, Voudris V (2015a) Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in electronic cigarettes: comparison between liquid and aerosol levels. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:9046–9053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Farsalinos KE et al (2015b) Nicotine levels and presence of selected tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco flavoured electronic cigarette refill liquids. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:3439–3452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flora JW, Wilkinson CT, Wilkinson JW, Lipowicz PJ, Skapars JA, Anderson A, Miller JH (2017) Method for the determination of carbonyl compounds in e-cigarette aerosols. J Chromatogr Sci 55:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Flouris AD et al (2013) Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function. Inhal Toxicol 25:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foulds J, Veldheer S, Berg A (2011) Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives. Int J Clin Pract 65:1037–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gennimata SA, Palamidas A, Kaltsakas G, Tsikrika S, Vakali S, Gratziou C, Koulouris N (2012) Acute effect of e-cigarette on pulmonary function in healthy subjects and smokers. P1053Google Scholar
  42. Gerloff J et al (2017) Inflammatory response and barrier dysfunction by different e-cigarette flavoring chemicals identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in e-liquids and e-vapors on human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Appl Toxicol 3:28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, Kośmider L, Sobczak, A, Kurek J, Prokopowicz A, Jabłońska-Czapla M, Rosik-Dulewska C, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N (2013a) Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control 23(2):133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goniewicz ML, Kuma T, Gawron M, Knysak J, Kosmider L (2013b) Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 15:158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grana RA, Ling PM (2014) “Smoking revolution”: a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites. Am J Prev Med 46:395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hajek P, Przulj D, Phillips A, Anderson R, McRobbie H (2017) Nicotine delivery to users from cigarettes and from different types of e-cigarettes. Psychopharmacology 234:773–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Herrington JS, Myers C, Rigdon A (2015) Analysis of nicotine and impurities in electronic cigarette solutions and vapor. Restek ChromatoGraphy Technical Resource Document, Bellefonte, PA. http://www.restek.com/pdfs/FFAN2127-UNV.pdf. Accessed 15 Dec 2016
  48. Herzog B, Metrano B, Gerberi J (2012) Tobacco Talk Survey: E-Cigarettes a promising opportunity. Equity Research, Wells Fargo Securities. Available at: http://www.stevevape.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/E-Cigs-A-PromisingOpportunity.pdf
  49. Hsu G, Sun JY, Zhu S-H (2018) Evolution of electronic cigarette brands from 2013-2014 to 2016-2017: analysis of brand websites. J Med Internet Res 20:e80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huang J et al (2019) Vaping versus JUULing: how the extraordinary growth and marketing of JUUL transformed the US retail e-cigarette market. Tob Control 28:146–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Husari A, Shihadeh A, Talih S, Hashem Y, El Sabban M, Zaatari G (2015) Acute exposure to electronic and combustible cigarette aerosols: effects in an animal model and in human alveolar cells. Nicotine Tob Res 18:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jackler RK, Ramamurthi D (2017) Unicorns cartoons: marketing sweet and creamy e-juice to youth. Tob Control 26:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Javed F, Kellesarian SV, Sundar IK, Romanos GE, Rahman I (2017) Recent updates on electronic cigarette aerosol and inhaled nicotine effects on periodontal and pulmonary tissues. Oral Dis 23:1052–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jensen RP, Luo W, Pankow JF, Strongin RM, Peyton DH (2015) Hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosols. N Engl J Med 372(4):392–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jorenby DE, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Baker TB (2017) Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: a comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend 170:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kamilari E, Farsalinos K, Poulas K, Kontoyannis CG, Orkoula MG (2018) Detection and quantitative determination of heavy metals in electronic cigarette refill liquids using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Food Chem Toxicol 116:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kavvalakis MP et al (2015) Multicomponent analysis of replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes using chromatographic techniques. J Anal Toxicol 39:262–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Khlystov A, Samburova V (2016) Flavoring compounds dominate toxic aldehyde production during e-cigarette vaping. Environ Sci Technol 50:13080–13085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kim H-J, Shin H-S (2013) Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1291:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kistler C, Crutchfield T, Sutfin E, Ranney L, Berman M, Zarkin G, Goldstein A (2017) Consumers’ preferences for electronic nicotine delivery system product features: a structured content analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Klager S, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Christiani DC, Lu Q, Allen JG (2017) Flavoring chemicals and aldehydes in e-cigarette emissions. Environ Sci Technol 51:10806–10813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Klein SM, Giovino GA, Barker DC, Tworek C, Cummings KM, O’Connor RJ (2008) Use of flavored cigarettes among older adolescent and adult smokers: United States, 2004–2005. Nicotine Tob Res 10:1209–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kosmider L et al (2016) Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde. Thorax thoraxjnl-2015-207895Google Scholar
  64. Krüsemann EJ, Visser WF, Cremers JW, Pennings JL, Talhout R (2018) Identification of flavour additives in tobacco products to develop a flavour library. Tob Control 27:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuschner WG, Reddy S, Mehrotra N, Paintal HS (2011) Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider. Int J General Med 4:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Laugesen M (2008) Second safety report on the Ruyan® e-cigarette. Cell 27:4375Google Scholar
  67. Lee M-S, LeBouf RF, Son Y-S, Koutrakis P, Christiani DC (2017) Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco-and menthol-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health 16:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee M-H, Szulejko JE, Kim K-H (2018a) Determination of carbonyl compounds in electronic cigarette refill solutions and aerosols through liquid-phase dinitrophenyl hydrazine derivatization. Environ Monit Assess 190:200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lee Y-S, Kim K-H, Lee S, Brown R, Jo S-H (2018b) Analytical method for measurement of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in E-cigarette liquid and aerosol. Appl Sci 8:2699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lerner CA et al (2015) Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung. PloS ONE 10:e0116732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Leventhal AM et al (2015) Association of electronic cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. JAMA 314:700–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lim HB, Kim SH (2014) Inhallation of e-cigarette cartridge solution aggravates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice. Toxicol Res 30:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lim H-H, Shin H-S (2013) Measurement of aldehydes in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bull Korean Chem Soc 34:2691–2696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lim H-H, Shin H-S (2017) Determination of volatile organic compounds including alcohols in refill fluids and cartridges of electronic cigarettes by headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 409:1247–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lisko JG, Tran H, Stanfill SB, Blount BC, Watson CH (2015) Chemical composition and evaluation of nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and selected flavors in E-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions. Nicotine Tob Res 17:1270–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marini S, Buonanno G, Stabile L, Ficco G (2014) Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 278:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Marynak KL, Gammon DG, Rogers T, Coats EM, Singh T, King BA (2017) Sales of nicotine-containing electronic cigarette products: United States, 2015. Am J Public Health 107:702–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McAuley TR, Hopke P, Zhao J, Babaian S (2012) Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality. Inhalation Toxicol 24:850–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McKernan LT, Niemeier RT, Kreiss K, Hubbs A, Park R, Dankovic D, Dunn KH, Parker J, Fedan K, Streicher R, Fedan J, Garcia A, Whittaker C, Gilbert S, Nourian F, Galloway E, Smith R, Lentz TJ, Hirst D, Topmiller J, Curwin B (2016) Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH. Publication No. 2016-111Google Scholar
  80. Misra M, Leverette RD, Cooper BT, Bennett MB, Brown SE (2014) Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:11325–11347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. National Academies of Sciences E, Medicine (2018) Public health consequences of e-cigarettes. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  82. Neilson L, Mankus C, Thorne D, Jackson G, DeBay J, Meredith C (2015) Development of an in vitro cytotoxicity model for aerosol exposure using 3D reconstructed human airway tissue; application for assessment of e-cigarette aerosol. Toxicol In Vitro 29:1952–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Noel JK, Rees VW, Connolly GN (2011) Electronic cigarettes: a new ‘tobacco’industry? Tob Control 20:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ogunwale MA, Li M, Ramakrishnam Raju MV, Chen Y, Nantz MH, Conklin DJ, Fu X-A (2017) Aldehyde detection in electronic cigarette aerosols. ACS Omega 2:1207–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oh J-A, Shin H-S (2014) Identification and quantification of several contaminated compounds in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr Sci 53:841–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Palazzolo DL (2013) Electronic cigarettes and vaping: a new challenge in clinical medicine and public health. A literature review. Front Public Health 1:56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pisinger C, Døssing M (2014) A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes. Prev Med 69:248–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Polosa R et al (2016a) Blood pressure control in smokers with arterial hypertension who switched to electronic cigarettes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Polosa R et al (2016b) Persisting long term benefits of smoking abstinence and reduction in asthmatic smokers who have switched to electronic cigarettes. Discov Med 21:99–108Google Scholar
  90. Polosa R, Morjaria JB, Caponnetto P, Prosperini U, Russo C, Pennisi A, Bruno CM (2016c) Evidence for harm reduction in COPD smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes. Respir Res 17:166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Romagna G, Allifranchini E, Bocchietto E, Todeschi S, Esposito M, Farsalinos KE (2013) Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extract. Inhal Toxicol 25:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rustemeier K, Stabbert R, Haussmann H-J, Roemer E, Carmines E (2002) Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 2: chemical composition of mainstream smoke. Food Chem Toxicol 40:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Scheffler S, Dieken H, Krischenowski O, Förster C, Branscheid D, Aufderheide M (2015) Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:3915–3925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schober W et al (2014) Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers. Int J Hygiene Environ Health 217:628–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schripp T, Markewitz D, Uhde E, Salthammer T (2013) Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Indoor Air 23:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shen Y, Wolkowicz MJ, Kotova T, Fan L, Timko MP (2016) Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells. Sci Rep 6:23984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sherwood CL, Boitano S (2016) Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2, 5-dimethypyrazine. Respir Res 17:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sleiman M, Logue JM, Montesinos VN, Russell ML, Litter MI, Gundel LA, Destaillats H (2016) Emissions from electronic cigarettes: key parameters affecting the release of harmful chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 50:9644–9651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sosnowski TR, Kramek-Romanowska K (2016) Predicted deposition of e-cigarette aerosol in the human lungs. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 29:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sundar IK, Javed F, Romanos GE, Rahman I (2016) E-cigarettes and flavorings induce inflammatory and pro-senescence responses in oral epithelial cells and periodontal fibroblasts. Oncotarget 7:77196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Talhout R, Opperhuizen A, Van Amsterdam JG (2006) Sugars as tobacco ingredient: effects on mainstream smoke composition. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1789–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (1986) Test methods for evaluating solid waste: physical/chemical methods. EPA MethodGoogle Scholar
  103. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Method 5030B/US, Purge and trap for aqueous samplesGoogle Scholar
  104. Tierney PA, Karpinski CD, Brown JE, Luo W, Pankow JF (2016) Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids. Tob Control 25:e10–e15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Trtchounian A, Williams M, Talbot P (2010) Conventional and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have different smoking characteristics. Nicotine Tob Res 12:905–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tsikrika S, Vakali S, Gennimata SA, Palamidas A, Kaltsakas G, Koulouris N, Gratziou C (2014) Short term use of an e-cig: influence on clinical symptoms, vital signs and eCO levels. In: Scott JE, Agaku I (eds) Tobacco induced diseases, vol S1. Springer, New York, p A30Google Scholar
  107. Vakali S, Tsikrika S, Gennimata SA, Kaltsakas G, Palamidas A, Koulouris N, Gratziou C (2014) E-cigarette acute effect on symptoms and airway inflammation: comparison of nicotine with a non-nicotine cigarette. In: Tobacco induced diseases. BioMed Central, vol 12, p A35Google Scholar
  108. Van Staden SR, Groenewald M, Engelbrecht R, Becker P, Hazelhurst L (2013) Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, health and lifestyle perceptions in smokers converting from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes. S Afr Med J 103:864–868Google Scholar
  109. Vansickel AR, Cobb CO, Weaver MF, Eissenberg TE (2010) A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic “cigarettes”: nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects. Cancer Epidemiol Prev Biomark 19:1945–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vansickel AR, Weaver MF, Eissenberg T (2012) Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette. Addiction 107:1493–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vardavas CI, Anagnostopoulos N, Kougias M, Evangelopoulou V, Connolly GN, Behrakis PK (2012) Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide. Chest 141:1400–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Varlet V, Farsalinos K, Augsburger M, Thomas A, Etter J-F (2015) Toxicity assessment of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:4796–4815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Weaver SR, Huang J, Pechacek TF, Heath JW, Ashley DL, Eriksen MP (2018) Are electronic nicotine delivery systems helping cigarette smokers quit? Evidence from a prospective cohort study of US adult smokers, 2015–2016. PLoS ONE 13:e0198047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Williams M, Villarreal A, Bozhilov K, Lin S, Talbot P (2013) Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. PloS ONE 8:e57987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Williams RS, Derrick J, Ribisl KM (2015) Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet. JAMA Pediatr 169:e1563–e1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams M, Bozhilov K, Ghai S, Talbot P (2017) Elements including metals in the atomizer and aerosol of disposable electronic cigarettes and electronic hookahs. PLoS ONE 12:175430Google Scholar
  117. Wollscheid KA, Kremzner ME (2009) Electronic cigarettes: safety concerns and regulatory issues. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 66:1740–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. World Health Organization (2012) Standard operating procedure for intense smoking of cigarettes. WHO Tobacco Laboratory Network (TobLabNet) Official Method SOP 1:1–7Google Scholar
  119. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (2007) Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-Nitrosamines.Google Scholar
  120. Yamin CK, Bitton A, Bates DW (2010) E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon. Ann Intern Med 153:607–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zare S, Nemati M, Zheng Y (2018) A systematic review of consumer preference for e-cigarette attributes: flavor, nicotine strength, and type. PloS ONE 13:e0194145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhu S-H, Sun JY, Bonnevie E, Cummins SE, Gamst A, Yin L, Lee M (2014) Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation. Tobacco Control 23:iii3–iii9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BioNEST (DBT-BIRAC)Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Govt. Emerson CollegeMultan Affiliated with Bahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  4. 4.Institute of Adsorption and Inorganic Membrane, School of Chemical EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of Nano Sciences and MaterialsCentral University of JammuJammuIndia
  6. 6.Chemical, Medical, and Environmental Science DepartmentNational Physical LaboratoryTeddingtonUK

Personalised recommendations