Review of the Analytical Methods for and Clinical Impact of Additives and Flavors Used in Electronic Cigarettes

  • Vasudha Bansal
  • Beshare Hashemi
  • Nadeem Raza
  • Ki-Hyun KimEmail author
  • Waseem Raza
  • Pawan Kumar
  • Richard J. C. Brown
Review Paper


Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently become very popular among the population due to the various flavors available for vaping products. Consequently, manufacturers are trying to attract more users through the addition of various additives including nicotine, new flavors, and aromas. However, the inhalation of unknown and untested chemicals may cause health problems. Therefore, more clinical reports need to be collected for standardization of ECs for their effective regulation. However, detailed compositional information for EC additives is not commonly available. The aim of this review is, therefore, to study the state-of-the-art methods that can be employed for the quantitative analysis of the composition of electronic cigarettes with respect to these additives and flavors along with the basic cigarette ingredient like nicotine (both before and after consumption). In addition, efforts have also been made to address the clinical impacts of vaping EC and its additives on both the organ and cellular level. It was found that the effect of flavorings in EC is clearly associated with pathogenicity at the molecular level and need of standardization of the usage of EC and its flavorings is urgently needed.


Electronic cigarettes Types of flavor Aerosol analysis Method development Additives Clinical effects 



The lead author, VB, thanks SERB, New Delhi for funding the young scientist project (YSS/2015/001776). The corresponding author (KHK) acknowledges support made in part by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No: 2016R1E1A1A01940995). This study was supported by a grant (Grant No: 14182MFDS977) from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Korea in 2017.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BioNEST (DBT-BIRAC)Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Govt. Emerson CollegeMultan Affiliated with Bahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  4. 4.Institute of Adsorption and Inorganic Membrane, School of Chemical EngineeringDalian University of TechnologyDalianPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of Nano Sciences and MaterialsCentral University of JammuJammuIndia
  6. 6.Chemical, Medical, and Environmental Science DepartmentNational Physical LaboratoryTeddingtonUK

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