Health Effects of Chromium and Its Concentrations in Cereal Foods Together with Sulfur
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The common cellular process of chromium and similar toxic elements are oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell death. Their cations have strong affinity for sulfur found in proteins, and thus they can deactivate the enzymes and stop or alter metabolic processes. In this study, absorption and toxicity of Cr were discussed taking into consider its solubility in water as well as chemical species and way of intake into body. Further, concentrations of total Cr and sulfur in cereal foods consumed commonly in Turkey were evaluated by a physiological approach. Among the studied 29 cereal samples, Cr concentrations in 17 of them (60%) were found to be higher (p < 0.5) than the MCL of 0.30 mg kg−1. Total estimated daily intake (∑EDI) from cereal foods was found to be 0.0330 mg/day/prs, that is, 66% of lower band and 16% of upper band of the RDA. Among other total mean values, ∑EWI = 0.231 (max. EWI:1.4 mg/week/prs), ∑EED = 1.8 × 10−4, and HICr(III) = ∑HQ = 1.2 × 10−4 (lower than 1) reveal that the probability of an individual developing cancer over a lifetime as a result of exposure to Cr through consumption of rice was higher (p < 0.5) than acceptable risk levels (EED > 10−4). This evaluation is based on that chromium found in food and supplements is Cr(III).
KeywordsRice Chromium Sulfur Risk assessment Carcinogenicity Hazard index
The author thanks to Dr. Mehmet Yaman from Firat University for his assistance in chemical analysis.
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