Personal Exposure to Air Pollutants from Winter Season Bonfires in Rural Areas of Gujarat, India

  • Sneha Gautam
  • Adityaraj Talatiya
  • Mirang Patel
  • Karan Chabhadiya
  • Pankaj Pathak
Original Paper


The present study quantifies the personal exposure to air pollutants (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, CO2, and CO) and its bound chemical constituents during bonfire activities occurring in rural area of Gujarat, India. The study was performed during the late 2017 and early 2018 winter season, when bonfires are a very common practice. Three major sites, viz., University Reception Area (URA), Workshop Area (WSA), and Hostel Wing-A (HWA) were delineated to reveal discrete patches of personal exposure. Particulate matters, gaseous pollutants, and associated ionic constitutes were analyzed by an air quality monitor and ion chromatography. The concentration profile of PM2.5, PM10, and CO were found in the range between 81–206, 188–282, and 2.8–5.8 µgm−3, respectively, at the study area which are more than the permissible limit. The major ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+ Mg2+, NH4+, Cl, Br, NO2−, NO3−, PO42−, and SO42− were obtained on particulate matter. Based on this observation it is concluded that if personal exposure to these pollutants increases, then metabolic activities may change and lead to severe diseases, viz., asthma, rhinitis, tuberculosis. It is a grave concern for the WHO to improve the human health and eradicate the communal diseases under sustainable development goals. Henceforth, it is mandatory to understand the variations of air pollutants at workplace and the associated exposure to individuals.


Bonfire PM2.5 PM10 CO Exposure Ionic species 



Particulate matter


Central pollution control board


Sustainable development goals


University reception gate


Workshop area


Hostel wing A


Beta attenuation monitor


National accreditation board for testing and calibration laboratories


Ion chromatography


Relative humidity




World Health Organization



SG is thankful to Marwadi University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India, and the associated security staff for providing the required funding and support during field work, respectively. Authors are thankful to Metrohm India Ltd to provide instrumental support in IC analysis.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringMarwadi UniversityRajkotIndia

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