Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals to Children Following Non-dietary Exposures and Sugarcane Consumption in a Rural Area in Southern China

  • Xiao-fei Wang
  • Chao-bing Deng
  • Geoffrey Sunahara
  • Juan Yin
  • Gui-ping Xu
  • Kai-xian Zhu
Original Paper
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Based on the context of a rural area contaminated by mining waste in Guangxi, China, the health risks of seven heavy metals (HM) to local children were evaluated. Risk assessments of soil HMs to individuals exposed through non-dietary routes and consuming locally grown sugarcane (juice) were conducted. Results indicated that the ranking for risks of HM exposures was juice drinking > non-dietary oral intake > dermal contact > inhalation. For non-carcinogenic risks, Cr and Cd in sugarcane juice posed the most significant risks, whereas As and Pb posed the highest risks through non-dietary exposure routes. A newly established assessment model using a regression equation of hazard index of HMs to ratios of soil HM concentrations/total reference doses, showed that the non-dietary HM risk was closely correlated to the environmental HM levels and human sensitivities, which can be measured by HM total daily reference doses.

Keywords

Heavy metals Non-dietary exposure Health risk Sugarcane Children 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2013GXNSFEA053001) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2015GXNSFEA139001). The authors would like to thank other team members, Yan Tian, Xin Hong, Xiao-Xi Liang and Rong Su, for their hard work and dedication in finishing this study.

Supplementary material

12403_2018_275_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 19 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Light Industry and Food Engineering CollegeGuangxi UniversityNanningChina
  2. 2.Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Environmental Monitoring CentreNanningChina
  3. 3.Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Environmental Protection BureauNanningChina
  4. 4.Department of Natural Resource SciencesMcGill UniversitySte-Anne-de-BellevueCanada
  5. 5.Scientific Research Academy of Guangxi Environmental ProtectionNanningChina

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