Advertisement

Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 111–124 | Cite as

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Water Quality Across Different Forms of Land Use on the Mahafaly Plateau, Madagascar

  • Jean R. RasoloariniainaEmail author
  • Jörg U. Ganzhorn
  • Noromalala Raminosoa
Original Paper

Abstract

The sub-arid southwest of Madagascar is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots combined with exceptional poverty and high risk of further temperature increase that will aggravate the living and health conditions of the people. As bases for future water management, we measured the physicochemical and microbiological quality of water sources across different forms of land use in the protected Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, and the agricultural and pastoral regions of the Mahafaly plateau on limestone and the coastal plain on sand during the dry and wet season of 2012–2013. We investigated spatial and seasonal variation of water characteristics and their relationships with bacterial contamination. Portable meters were used for the physicochemical measures. The compact dry method was used for microbial analyses. The pH was neutral to slightly alkaline and within the permissible limits of WHO and Malagasy standards. Electric conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were very high and above the permissible limits in the coastal plain, moderately high in the park and low on the plateau. The concentrations of nitrogen components \((\hbox {NH}_{4},\hbox { NO}_{3}\hbox { and NO}_{2})\) were high in the rainy season, with the highest concentrations in wells. Phosphate concentration was high throughout the study area. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio spp. were present throughout the study area year-round, representing a serious health hazard. Their concentrations were not correlated with any physicochemical characteristics in any systematic fashion that would allow to use the physicochemical characteristics as proxy for microbial contamination. Poor sanitary conditions are the principal causes of the water contamination that could be reduced substantially by simple behavioural changes of the local human population. The finding that water temperature in wells of the plateau and to a lesser extent of the coastal plain increases during the hot wet season indicates a substantial contribution of surface rather than subterranean water to the water available for human and livestock consumption. This limits the options for future increase of water consumption by people, livestock and agriculture in the region.

Keywords

Tsimanampetsotsa National Park Sub-arid climate Water quality Water pollution Bacteria Total coliforms 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was carried out under the collaboration between Madagascar National Parks, the Departments of Animal Biology, the Department of Plant Biology and Ecology (Antananarivo University, Madagascar) and the Department of Animal Ecology and Conservation (Hamburg University. Germany). We thank Susanne Kobbe, Dresy Lovasoa, Domoina Rakotomalala, Roland Eve, Jacques Rakotondranary, Yedidya Ratovonamana, Amadou Ranirison, Tobias Feldt, Mr. Violence Robert and all of the MNP and WWF staff in Toliara, for their support. Special thanks go to our para-ecologists Mr. Jack and Mr. Louis Fisy for their help in the field and for their communication skills with the local communities. A. Englert, W. Foley and the reviewers provided helpful comments on the manuscript. The study was financed by SuLaMa/BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung).

Supplementary material

12403_2014_129_MOESM1_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Appendix S1: Type and location of sampling sites, water and microbial characteristics during the wet season (DOCX 31KB)
12403_2014_129_MOESM2_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Appendix S2: Type and location of sampling sites and water characteristics during the dry season (DOCX 36KB)

References

  1. Abdel-Rahman HA (2002) Ground water quality of Oman. In: Abdel-Rahman HA (ed) Ground water quality. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 122–128Google Scholar
  2. Battistini RD (1964) L’extrême sud de Madagascar. Thèse d’Etat, CujasGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhanja KM, Ajoy KP (2000) Studies on the water quality index of river Sanamachhakandana at Keonjhar Garh, Orissa, India. Poll Res 19:377–385Google Scholar
  4. Bitton G (1994) Waste water microbiology. Wiley- Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Brinkmann K, Noromiarilanto F, Ratovonamana RY, Buerkert A (2014) Deforestation processes in south-western Madagascar over the past 40 years: what can we learn from settlement characteristics? Agriculture. Ecosyst Environ 195:231–243Google Scholar
  6. Commune of Beheloka (2005) Monographie de la commune de Beheloka. Commune of Beheloka, TulearGoogle Scholar
  7. Dobrilla JC (2013) Etude des grottes et des avens dans le PN de Tsimanampesotse. WWF, TulearGoogle Scholar
  8. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2003) Safe Drinking Water Act. US Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov. Accessed 10 Dec 2013
  9. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2013a) Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria for ammonia freshwater. US Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov. Accessed 10 Dec 2013
  10. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2013b) Monitoring and assessing the water quality. US Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov. Accessed 10 Dec 2013
  11. Fenn MD (2003) The spiny forest ecoregion. In: Goodman SM, Bensted J (eds) The natural history of Madagascar. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 1525–1530Google Scholar
  12. Ferguson B, Ganzhorn J, Jolly A, Louis EEJ, Rakotomalala D, Ramahaleo T (2013) Mahafaly and Mandrare: The spiny forest ecosystem. In: Schwitzer C et al (eds) Lemurs of Madagascar. A strategy for their conservation. IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, Conservation International, Bristol, pp 106–108Google Scholar
  13. Guyot L (2002) Reconnaissance hydrogéologique pour l’alimentation en eau d’une plaine littorale en milieu semi-aride: Sud-Ouest de Madagascar. Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Nantes, NantesGoogle Scholar
  14. Harper GJ, Steininger MK, Tucker CJ, Juhn D, Hawkins F (2007) Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environ Conserv 34:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jameel A, Sirajudeen J (2006) Risk assessment of physico-chemical contaminants in groundwater of Pettavaithalai area, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu-India. Environ Monit Assess 123:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaufmann JC, Tsirahamba S (2006) Forests and thorns: conditions of change affecting Mahafale pastoralists in southwestern Madagascar. Conserv Societ 4:231–261Google Scholar
  17. Kodaka H, Mizuochi S, Teramura H, Nirazuka T, Goins D, Odumeru J, Kokubo Y (2006) Comparison of the compact dry EC with the MNP method for enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in raw meats. J AOAC Int 89:100–114Google Scholar
  18. Krishnan RR, Dharmaraj K, Ranjitha KB (2007) A comparative study on the physicochemical and bacterial analysis of drinking, borewell and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi. J Environ Biol 28:105–108Google Scholar
  19. Lowe-McConnel RH (1987) Ecological studies in fish communities. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Madagascar Code Eau (1999) Loi \(\text{ N }^{\circ }\)98–029. Journal official de la République de Magadascar 2557:275Google Scholar
  21. Mattern C, Ravelomandeha FMP (2012) Etude anthropologique exploratoire: L’organisation sociale et les structures politiques sur le Plateau Mahafaly, Madagascar, Région Atsimo Andrefana. Action Contre la Faim International, ParisGoogle Scholar
  22. Montgomery MA, Elimelech M (2007) Water and sanitation in developing countries: Including health in the equation. Environ Sci Technol 41:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moore CV (1973) Iron in modern nutrition in health and disease, 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Olson DD, Dinerstein DD (1998) The global 200: a representation approach to conserving the earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. Conserv Biol 12:502–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pradeep JK (1998) Hydrogeology and quality of ground water around Hirapur District Sagar. Poll Res 17:91–94Google Scholar
  26. Prakash KL, Somashekar RK (2006) Groundwater quality—assessment on Anekal Taluk, Bangalore urban district, India. J Environ Biol 27:633–637Google Scholar
  27. Rajaobelison J, Mamifarananahary E, Ramaroson V, Bergeron G, Ranaivoarisoa A (2003) Apport des techniques isotopiques à l’étude des types d’infiltration d’eau dans les aquifères du Sud-Ouest de Madagascar. Mémoires d’Académie Malgache des Arts, Letters et Sciences 51:159–167Google Scholar
  28. Ramampiherika DK, Ralijaona C (1995) Sécheresse et eau potable à Madagascar. Sécheresse 6:119–121Google Scholar
  29. Ramampiherika DK, Ravaloson NL (2010) Aspects quantitatifs et qualitatifs des eaux de la zone littorale du Sud-Ouest de Madagascar. Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines. Unpubl. Report. Université de Toliara, Madagascar Google Scholar
  30. Ratovonamana YR, Rajeriarison C, Edmond R, Ganzhorn JU (2011) Phenology of different vegetation types in Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, south-western Madagascar. Malagasy Nat 5:14–38Google Scholar
  31. Ratovonamana YR, Rajeriarison C, Edmond R, Kiefer I, Ganzhorn JU (2013) Impact of livestock grazing on forest structure, plant species composition and biomass in south-western Madagascar. In: Beau N, Dessein S, Robbrecht E (eds) Proceedings of the XIXth AETFAT Congress on African plant diversity, systematics and sustainable development, Antananarivo, 26–30 April 2010. Scripta Botanica Belgica, National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Meise, pp 82–92Google Scholar
  32. Scales I (2011) Farming at the forest frontier: Land use and landscape change in Western Madagascar, 1896–2005. Environ Hist 17:499–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shittu OB, Olaitan JO, Amusa TS (2008) Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res 11:285–290Google Scholar
  34. SuLaMa (2011) Projet SuLaMa: Recherche participative pour appuyer la gestion durable des terres du Plateau Mahafaly dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Bonn, Hamburg. http://www.sulama.de. Accessed 10 Dec 2013
  35. Trans-Mad Developpement (TMD) (2011) Projet d’adduction d’eau potable et d’appui à la maitrise d’ouvrage de la commune d’Itampolo pour la mise en place d’un service public d’eau. MADAGASCAR, Région Atsimo Andrefana, District de Tuléar II: Programme hydraulique “ Plein Sud ”Google Scholar
  36. Usharani K, Umarani K, Ayyasamy K, Lakshmanaperumalsamy PM, Andshanthi K (2010) Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of Noyyal River and ground water quality of Perur, India. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 14:29–35Google Scholar
  37. WaterAid (2004) Politique de la qualité de l’eau. WaterAid Madagascar http://www.wateraid.org. Accessed 30 May 2014
  38. World Bank International Development Association http://www.web.worldbank.org. Accessed 30 May 2014.
  39. WHO (2004) Water sanitarisation and health programme. Managing water in the home: accelerated health gains from improved water sources. World Health Organization http://www.who.int. Accessed 30 May 2014
  40. WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th edn. World Health Organization http://www.who.int. Accessed 30 May 2014
  41. WHO and UNICEF (2006) Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: the urban and rural challenge of the decade. WHO Press, World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean R. Rasoloariniaina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jörg U. Ganzhorn
    • 2
  • Noromalala Raminosoa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of AntananarivoAntananarivoMadagascar
  2. 2.Institute of ZoologyHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations