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Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 187–198 | Cite as

Contamination and Exposure Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants (PAHs and OCPs) in Groundwater at a Terai Belt of North India

  • Amit MasihEmail author
  • J. K. Lal
  • Devendra Kumar Patel
Original Paper

Abstract

A study of persistent organic pollutants in groundwater was conducted at selected locations in Gorakhpur (terai belt in the north part of India) for a span of 1 year in order to ascertain their contamination levels. Water samples were collected from nine stations which covers roadside, residential, and agricultural sites (three stations per area) of Gorakhpur in the year 2010–2011. Two different compounds were determined: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). High-pressure liquid chromatography was used for PAH analysis whereas capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detector (ECD) was used for OCP analysis. The most often detected OCPs were pp-DDT (67 %) whereas pp-DDD, pp-DDE, and \({\upbeta }\)-HCH occurred rarely. The concentration of pesticides ranged from 2.98 to 13.27 ng/L. Total concentration of the measured PAHs varied between 10.24 and 43.85 ng/L. Among all PAHs, ANT and FLT were predominant, while the most carcinogenic PAH, i.e., B(a)P represented only 2 % of the total PAH content. Carcinogenic potency of PAH compounds was calculated and found to be insignificant at present level in the groundwater of Gorakhpur. Levels of POPs in the groundwater can help in environment risk assessment.

Keywords

Groundwater PAHs OCPs Carcinogenic potency  TEFs Terai belt 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support from the University Grants Commission in minor research project No. 8-1(184)2010 (MRP/NRCB) is duly acknowledged. I also thank Dr. S. D. Sharma, Head, Department of Chemistry, St. Andrew’s College, Gorakhpur for his encouragement.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Masih
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • J. K. Lal
    • 1
  • Devendra Kumar Patel
    • 2
  1. 1.Analytical Research Lab, Department of ChemistrySt. Andrew’s CollegeGorakhpurIndia
  2. 2.Analytical Chemistry SectionIndian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia
  3. 3.GorakhpurIndia

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