Advertisement

Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 11–24 | Cite as

A Review of Genesis and Evolution of Water Quality Index (WQI) and Some Future Directions

  • Ashok Lumb
  • T. C. Sharma
  • Jean-François Bibeault
Article

Abstract

The concept of indexing water with a numerical value to express its quality, based on physical, chemical and biological measurements, was developed in 1965 by US based National Sanitation Foundation (NSF). In NSFWQI, the selection of parameters is based on Delphi method and these models were formulated in additive and multiplicative forms. The models were implemented across various states in the US while being continually refined. One refined form is known as Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI). The index enjoys the advantage of being free from the arbitration in weighting the parameters and employs the concept of harmonic averaging. Another model of WQI from Europe (Spain) is that of Bascaron (Bol. Inf. Medio Ambient. 9:30–51, 1979), which is based on the normalization of the concentrations of the water quality parameters and then aggregating them through an additive model with suitable weights attached to the parameters involved. The major differences in various WQIs are based on the mannerism of statistical integration and interpretation of parameter values. A totally different approach was adopted in the Canadian Water Quality Index also known as Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI). CCME WQI and is also being used by many countries all over the world and has also been endorsed by United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) in 2007 as a model for Global Drinking Water Quality Index (GDWQI). The most commonly used parameters are dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrates, phosphates, metals among others. All indices have one or other limitation and the search for a perfect one is still a challenge.

Keywords

CCME WQI Delphi method NSF WQI Water Quality Index 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AB (2007) Water for life: healthy aquatic ecosystem information synthesis and initial assessment of the status and health of aquatic ecosystems in Alberta: surface water quality, sediment quality and non-fish biota. Technical Report # 278/279-01, Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Can be viewed at http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/7861.pdf
  2. Abrahao R, Carvalho M, da Silva Junior WR, Machado TTV, Gadelha CLM, Hernadez MIM (2007) Use of index analysis to evaluate the water quality of a stream receiving industrial effluents. Water SA 33:459–466 Google Scholar
  3. Almeida C, Quintar S, Gonzalez P, Mallea M (2008) Assessment of irrigation water quality: a proposal of a quality profile. Environ Monit Assess 142:149–152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloui BZ, Gueddari M (2009) Long-term water quality monitoring of the Sejnane reservoir in northeast Tunisia. Bull Eng Geol Environ 68:307–316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avvannavar SM, Shrihari S (2008) Evaluation of water quality index for drinking water purposes for river Natravati, Manglore, South India. Environ Monit Assess 143:279–290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Backman B, Bodis D, Lahermo P, Rampant S, Tarvainen T (1998) Application of a groundwater contamination index in Finland and Slovakia. Environ Geol 36(1–2):55–64 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bascaron M (1979) Establishment of a methodology for the determination of water quality. Bol Inf Medio Ambient 9:30–51. CIMA, MOPU, Madrid Google Scholar
  8. Bhargava DS (1985) Expression for drinking water supply standards. J Environ Eng. Div 111(3):304–316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhatt JP, Pandit MK (2010) A macro-invertebrate based new biotic index to monitor river quality. Curr Sci 99(2):196–203 Google Scholar
  10. Bordalo AA, Savva-Bordalo J (2007) The quest for safe drinking water: an example from Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). Water Res 41:2978–2986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bordalo AA, Teixeira R, Wiebe W (2006) A water quality index applied to an international shared river basin: the case of the Douro River. Environ Manag 38:910–920 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyacioglu H (2007) Development of a water quality index based on a European classification scheme. Water SA 33:101–106 Google Scholar
  13. Boyacioglu H (2010) Utilization of the water quality index method as a classification tool. Environ Monit Assess 167:115–124. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1035-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown RM, McClelland NI (1974) Up from chaos: the water quality index as an effective instrument in water quality management. National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, p 27 Google Scholar
  15. Brown RM, McClelland NI, Deininger RA, Tozer RG (1970) A water quality index—Do we dare? Water Sew Works 117(10):339–343 Google Scholar
  16. Brown RM, McClelland NI, Deininger RA, O’Connor M (1971) A water quality index—crashing the psychological barrier. Presented at 138th meeting of the American association for the advancement of science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Google Scholar
  17. Brown RM, McClelland NI, Deininger RA, Landwehr JM (1973). Validating the WQI. The paper presented at national meeting of American society of civil engineers on water resources engineering, Washington, DC Google Scholar
  18. Cash KJ, Saffran KA, Wright CR (2001) Application of Canadian water quality index (CWQI) to PPWB monitoring program. Technical Report, March 2001 Google Scholar
  19. CCME (2001) Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. CCME water quality index 1.0, User’s Manual, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Can be viewed at http://www.ccme.ca/assets/pdf/wqi_usermanualfctsht_e.pdf
  20. CESI (2008) Water quality: national perspective. Environment Canada. It can be viewed at http://ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=En&n=A073189E-1
  21. Chaturvedi MK, Bhasin JK (2010) Assessing the water quality index of water treatment plant and bore holes in Delhi, India. Environ Monit Assess 163:449–453. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0848-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooper J, Rediske R, Northup M, Thogerson M, van Denend A (1998) Agricultural water quality index. Robert B Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, p 75. WRI Publication # MR-98-1 Google Scholar
  23. Cude CG (2001) Oregon water quality index: a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness. J Am Water Resour Assoc 37(1):125–137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cude CG (2005) Accommodating change of bacterial indicators in long term water quality data sets. J Am Water Resour Assoc 41(1):47–54 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cude CG (2008) Interpretation and communication of water quality data using the Oregon water quality index (OWQI). State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Laboratory and Environmental Assessment Division, Portland. Can be viewed at www.deq.state.or.us/lab/wqm/wqindex.htm Google Scholar
  26. de Rosemond S, Duro DC, Dube M (2009) Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using water quality index. Environ Monit Assess 56:23–240. doi: 10.1007/s10661-008-0480-6 Google Scholar
  27. Debels P, Figueroa R, Urrutia R, Barra R, Niell X (2005) Evaluation of water quality in the Chillan river (Central Chile), using physical and chemical parameters and a modified water quality index. Environ Monit Assess 110:301–322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deininger RA, Maciunas JM (1971) Water quality index for public water supplies. Department of Environment and Industrial Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Google Scholar
  29. Dinius SH (1972) A social accounting system for evaluating water. Water Resour Res 8(5):1159–1177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dinius SH (1987) Design of water quality index. Water Resour Bull, Am Water Resour Assoc 23(5):823–843 Google Scholar
  31. Dojlido JR, Best GA (1993) Chemistry of water and water pollution. Ellis Horwood, London Google Scholar
  32. Dojlido J, Raniszewski J, Woyciechowska J (1994) Water quality index application for river in Vistula River basin in Poland. Water Sci Technol 30(10):57–64 Google Scholar
  33. Dube M, Johnson B, Dunn G, Culp J, Cash K, Munkittrick K, Wong I, Hedley K, Booty W, Lam D, Resler O, Storey A (2006) Development of a new approach to cumulative effects assessment: a northern river ecosystem example. Environ Monit Assess 113:87–115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunnette DA (1979) A geographically variable water quality index used in Oregon. J Water Pollut Control Fed 51(1):53–61 Google Scholar
  35. Environment Canada (2005). Application and testing of the CCME water quality index for selected water bodies in Atlantic Canada. Can be viewed at www.ec.gc.ca/soer-ee/English/resource_network/status_report_e.cfm
  36. EPI (2010) Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, Yale University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Columbia University, in collaboration with World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland and Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, Italy. Can be viewed at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/es/epi/papers/2008EPI_mainreport_july10.pdf
  37. Fernandez N, Ramirez A, Sonalo F (2004) Physico-chemical water quality indices—a comparative review. Bistua, Rev Fac Cienc Basic 2(1):19–30. ISSN 0120-4211 Google Scholar
  38. Fulazzaky MA (2009) Water quality evaluation system to assess the Brantas River water. Water Resour Manag 23:3019–3033. doi: 10.1007/s11269-009-9421-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fulazzaky MA, Seong TW, Masirin MIM (2010) Assessment of water quality status for the Selangor River in Malaysia. Water Air Pollution 205:63–77. doi: 10.1007/s11270-009-0056-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giuseppe B, Guidice RL (2010) Application of two water quality indices as monitoring and management tools of rivers. Case study: the Imera Meridiopnale River Italy. Environ Manag 45:856–867. doi: 10.1007/sD00267-010-9450-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hallock D (2002) A water quality index for ecology’s stream monitoring program. Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia. Publication No. 002-03-052 Google Scholar
  42. Harkins RD (1974) An objective water quality index. J Water Pollut Control Fed 46(3):588–591 Google Scholar
  43. Hèbert S (1996). Dévelopment d’un indice de la qualité bactériologique et physico-chimique de l’eau pour des rivières du Québec. Report of the ministière de l’environnement et de la faune, Québec, QC, Canada Google Scholar
  44. Hèbert S (2005) Comparison between the index of overall quality of water in Quebec (IQBP) the water quality index CCME (WQI) for the protection of aquatic life, Quebec. Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks Department in Monitoring the State of Environment, Québec. ISBN:2-550-45900-8 Google Scholar
  45. Horton RK (1965) An index number system for rating water quality. J Water Pollut Control Fed 37(3):300–306 Google Scholar
  46. House MA (1989) A water quality index for river management. J Water Environ Manag 3:336–344 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. House MA (1990) Water quality indices as indicators of ecosystem change. Environ Monit Assess 5:255–263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Husain T (2001) Canadian water quality index determination for three EMAN sites. In: Ecological monitoring and assessment network. Environment Canada, Burlington Google Scholar
  49. Inhaber H (1974) An approach to a water quality index for Canada. Water Res 9:821–833 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Iowa DNR Report (2006) Iowa’s ambient water monitoring program, water fact sheet 2006-8. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey, Iowa City Google Scholar
  51. Ip WC, Hu WQ, Wong W, Xia J (2009) Application of grey relational method to river environment quality evaluation in China. J Hydrol (Amst) 379:284–290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jinturkar AM, Deshmukh SS, Agarkar SV, Chavan GR (2010) Determination of water quality index by fuzzy logic approach: a case of ground water in an Indian town. Water Sci Technol 61(8):1987–1994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Joseph J, Parameswaran G (2005) Water quality index of different areas in Calicut City. Asian J Chem 18:740–742 Google Scholar
  54. Karr JR (1981) Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries 6(6):21–27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Khan F, Husain T, Lumb A (2003) Water quality evaluation and trend analysis at selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada. Environ Monit Assess 88:221–242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khan A, Tobin A, Paterson R, Khan H, Warren R (2005) Application of CCME procedures for deriving site specific water quality guidelines for the CCME water quality index. Water Qual Res J Can 40:448–456 Google Scholar
  57. Kumar A, Dua A (2009) Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river Ravi at Madhopur (India). Glob J Environ Sci 8(1):49–57 Google Scholar
  58. Kung H, Ying L, Liu Y (1992) A complementary tool to water quality indices: fuzzy clustering analysis. Water Resour Bull 28(3):525–533 Google Scholar
  59. Landwehr JM (1974) Water quality indices: construction and analysis. PhD thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Google Scholar
  60. Landwehr JM, Deininger RA (1974) An objective of water quality index. Environ Monit Assess, J Water Pollut Control Fed 46(7):1804–1807 Google Scholar
  61. Landwehr JM, Deininger RA (1976) A comparison of several water quality indices. J Water Pollut Control Fed 48(5):954–958 Google Scholar
  62. Landwehr JM (1979) A statistical view of class of water quality indices. Water Resour Res 15(2):460–468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lermontov A, Yokyama L, Lermontov M, Machado RDI (2009) River quality analysis using fuzzy water quality index: Ribeira do Iguape river watershed, Brazil. Ecol Indic 9:1188–1197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liebman H (1969) Atlas of water quality, methods and practical conditions. Oldenbourg, Munich Google Scholar
  65. Linstone HA, Murray T (1975) The Delphi method: techniques and applications. Addison Wesley, Reading Google Scholar
  66. Liou SM, Lo SL, Wang SH (2004) A generalized water quality index for Taiwan. Environ Monit Assess 96:35–52 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lumb A, Halliwell D, Sharma T (2006) Application of the CCME water quality index to monitor. Water quality: a case study of the Mackenzie river basin, Canada. Environ Monit Assess 113:411–429 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McClelland NI, Brown RM, Deininger RA (1976) WQI—enhancing appreciation of quality improvement. National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor Google Scholar
  69. McDuffie B, Haney JT (1973) A proposed river pollution index. American Chemical Society, Division of Water, Air and Waste Chemistry, New York Google Scholar
  70. Mercier V, Leger D (2003) Water quality survey. NB Department of Environment. Can be viewed at http://www.gnb.ca/0009/0371/0013/index-e.asp
  71. Mercier V, Leger D (2006) An assessment of the application of testing of the WQI of the CCME in the Atlantic Provinces. A discussion paper, Knowledge Integration Strategies Division, Environment Canada, Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3. Can be viewed at www.ec.gc.ca/soer-rec/English/recourse_network/CCME_e.cfm
  72. Mrazik S (2007) Oregon water quality index summary report, water years 1997–2006. State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Laboratory Division, Portland, DEQ07-Lab-0047-TR Google Scholar
  73. MRC (2008) An assessment of water quality in the lower Mekong basin. MRC Technical Paper No. 19, Mekong River Commission, Vientiane, 70 p Google Scholar
  74. Nagles JW, Davies-Colley RJ, Smith DG (2001) A water quality index for contact recreation in New Zealand. Water Sci Technol 43(5):285–292 Google Scholar
  75. Nikoo MR, Kerachian R, Malakpor-Estalaki S, Bassi-Azghadi SN, Azimi-Ghadikolaee MM (2010) A probabilistic water quality index for river quality assessment: a case study. Environ Monit Assess. doi: 10.1007/s10661-010-1842-4 Google Scholar
  76. NL (2008) Agrifood water quality index (AFWQI). Water Resources Management Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s. Can be viewed at http://www.env.gov.nl.ca/Env/env/waterres/Groundwater/Real_Time/afwqi.pdf Google Scholar
  77. Ott WR (1978) Environmental quality indices: theory and practice. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor Google Scholar
  78. Parparov A, Hambright KD (2007) Composite water quality: evaluation and management feedbacks. Water Qual Res J Can 42(1):20–25 Google Scholar
  79. Pesce SF, Wunderlin DA (2000) Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Cordoba City (Argentina) on Suquia River. Water Res 34:2915–2926 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prati L, Pavanell R, Pesarin F (1971) Assessment of surface water quality by a single index of pollution. Water Res 5:741–751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Price DHA (1974) Water quality monitoring systems: the practice and experience in the United Kingdom. In: Deininger RA (ed) Design of environmental information systems. An Arbor Science, Ann Arbor Google Scholar
  82. Qian Y, Migliaccio W, Wan Y, Li Y (2007) Surface water quality evaluation using multivariate methods and a new water quality index in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Water Resour Res 43:W08405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ramachandramoorthy T, Sivasankar V, Subramaniam V (2010) The seasonal status of chemical parameters in shallow coastal aquifers of Rameswaran Island, India. Environ Monit Assess 160:127–139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reynoldson TB, Rosenberg DR, Day KE, Norris RH, Resh VH (1997) The reference condition: comparison of multimetric & multivariate approaches to assess water-quality impairment using benthic macroinvertebrates. J N Am Benthic Soc 16:833–852 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reynoldson TB, Logan C, Pascoe T, Thompson SP (2003) Canadian aquatic biomonitoring network (CABIN). Invertebrate Bio-monitoring, Field & Laboratory Manual National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington. Can be viewed at http://cabin.cciw.ca/Application/Downloads/cabin_protocol.doc Google Scholar
  86. Rickwood CJ, Carr JM (2009) Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index. Environ Monit Assess 156:73–90 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rocchini R, Swain LG (1995) The British Columbia water quality index. Water Quality Branch, Environmental Protection Department, British Columbia Ministry of Environment Land and Parks, Victoria, p 13 Google Scholar
  88. Ross SL (1977) An index system for classifying river quality. Water Pollut Control 76(1):113–122 Google Scholar
  89. Saeedi M, Abessi O, Sharifi F, Meraji H (2010) Development of ground water quality index. Environ Monit Assess 163:327–335. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0837-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. SAFE (1995) Strategic assessment of Florida’s environment indicators. Florida stream water quality index (WQI). Can be viewed at http://www.pepps.fsu.edu/safe/pdf/swq3.pdf
  91. Said A, Stevens DK, Sehlke G (2004) An innovative index for evaluating water quality in streams. Environ Manag 34(3):406–414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sargaonkar A, Deshpande V (2003) Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environ Monit Assess 89:43–67 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sarkar C, Abbasi SA (2006) Qualidex—a new software for generating water quality index. Environ Monit Assess 119:201–231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scottish Research Development Department (1976) Development of a water quality index. Applied Research & Development Report Number ARD3, Engineering Division, Edinburg, UK, 61 p Google Scholar
  95. Sedeno-Diaz JE, Lopez-Lopez E (2007) Water quality in the Rio Lerma. Mexico: an overview of the last quarter of the twentieth century. Water Resour Manag 21:1797–1812 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sharma TC (2002) Canadian water quality index determination for 4 sites in the Mackenzie River Basin. Contract KW405-02-0308, Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada, p 58, September Google Scholar
  97. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Lim EC, Mushrifah I (2007) Water quality changes in Chini Lake, Pahang West Malaysia. Environ Monit Assess 131:279–292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Simões FS, Moreira AB, Bisinoti MC, Nobre Gimenez SM, Yabe MJS (2008) Water quality index as a simple indicator of aquaculture effects on aquatic bodies. Ecol Indic 8(5):476–484 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sladecek V (1973) System of water quality from biological point of view. In: Mai V (ed) Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. Advances in Limnology, vol 7. E. Schweizerbart‘sch Verlagsbuch-handling, Stuttgart, p 218. ISBN:978-3-510-47005-1 paperback Google Scholar
  100. Smith DG (1990) A better water quality indexing system for rivers and streams. Water Res 24(10):1237–1244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Snow J (1854) On the mode of communication of cholera. Churchill, London. Can be viewed at http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html Google Scholar
  102. SOE Report (1997) The state of the environment report. Process and criteria for indicator selection. Can be viewed at http://www.manitoba.ca/conservation/annual-reports/soe-reports/soe97/append.html
  103. Soltan ME (1999) Evaluation of groundwater quality in Dakhla Oasis (Egyptian Western Desert). Environ Monit Assess 57:157–168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stambuk-Giljanovic N (1999) Water quality evaluation by index in Dalmatia. Water Res 33(16):3423–3440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stambuk-Giljanovic N (2003) Comparison of Dalmatian water values indices. Water Environ Res 75(5):338–405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Statistics Canada (2008) Behaviour study on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). It can be viewed at www.statcan.ca/english/research/16-001-MIE2007003.htm
  107. Steinhart CE, Schierow LJ, Chesters G (1981) A review of water quality and related Indices. Great Lakes Environmental Planning Study contribution No 38, Water Resources Centre, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706, USA Google Scholar
  108. Steinhart CE, Schierow LJ, Sonzogni WC (1982) An environmental quality index for the Great Lakes. Water Resour Bull 18(6):1025–1031 Google Scholar
  109. Stingter TY, Ribeiro L, Carvalho Dill AMM (2006) Application of a groundwater quality index as an assessment and communication tool in agro-environmental policies—two Portuguese case studies. J Hydrol (Amst), 327:578–591. doi: 10.1016/j.hydrology.2005.12.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stojda A, Dojlido J (1983) A study of water quality index in Poland. WHO. Water Anal Bull 1:30–32 Google Scholar
  111. Swamee PK, Tyagi A (2000) Describing water quality with aggregate index. J Environ Eng Div ASCE 126(5):450–455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thomson B, Melwani A, Lowe S, Greenfield B (2007) Development of indicators of anthropogenic contamination in the San Fransisco Estuary. A report to the San Fransisco Estuary Project, San Fransisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA, December 17 Google Scholar
  113. Tipping WD, Cude C, Long SC, Boyce JK (2002) Sustainable development indicators for transboundary river basin systems. In: Water intelligence on line, January 2002. Papers from the IWA World Water Congress, Berlin, 2001 Google Scholar
  114. Tiwari TN, Mishra M (1985) A preliminary assessment of water quality index of major Indian rivers. Indian J Environ Prot 5(4):276–279 Google Scholar
  115. Tobin A, Khan A, Khan H, Moores L, Taylor J (2007) Forestry water quality index—a planning tool for the assessment and communication of the impact of forestry activities on water quality. For Chron 83:207–214 Google Scholar
  116. Tsegaye T, Sheppard D, Islam KR, Johnson A, Tadess W, Atalay A, Marzen L (2006) Development of chemical index as a measure of in stream water quality in response to land-use and land-cover changes. Water Air Soil Pollut 174(1):61–79 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tyson JM, House MA (1989) The application of a water quality index to river management. Water Sci Technol 21:1149–1159 Google Scholar
  118. UKTAG (2007) Recommendations on surface water classification schemes for the purposes of the water framework directive. UK Technical Advisory Group on the Water Framework Directive, December Google Scholar
  119. UNEP GEMS (2007) Global drinking water quality index. Development and sensitivity analysis report. Can be viewed at http://www.gemswater.org/publications/pdfs/gwqi.pdf
  120. Vignolo A, Pochettino A, Cicerone D (2006) Water quality assessment using remote sensing techniques: Medrano Creek, Argentina. J Environ Manag 81(4):429–433 Google Scholar
  121. Walski TM, Parker FL (1974) Consumer’s water quality index. J Environ Eng Div ASCE 100(3):593–611 Google Scholar
  122. Wepener V, Euler N, van Vuren JHJ, du Preez HH, Kohler A (1992) The development of an aquatic toxicity index as a tool in the operational management of water quality in the Olifants River (Kruger National Park). Koedoe 35(2):1–9 Google Scholar
  123. Wepener V, van Vuren JHJ, du Preez HH (1999) The implementation of an aquatic toxicity index as a water quality monitoring tool in the Olifants River (Kruger National Park). Koedoe 42(1):85–96 Google Scholar
  124. Wright CR, Saffran KA, Anderson AM, Neilson RD, MacAlpine ND, Cooke SE (1999) A water quality index for agricultural streams in Alberta. In: The Alberta agricultural water quality index (AAWQI). Alberta Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture Program Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, p 35 Google Scholar
  125. Zandbergen PA, Hall KJ (1998) Analysis of the British Columbia water quality index for watershed managers: a case study of two small watersheds. Water Qual Res J Can 33(4):519–549 Google Scholar
  126. Zoabi B, Gueddari M (2008) Long term water quality monitoring of the Sejane reservoir in northeast Tunisia. Bull Eng Geol Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10064-009-0186-1 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashok Lumb
    • 1
  • T. C. Sharma
    • 2
  • Jean-François Bibeault
    • 3
  1. 1.Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network Coordinating Office, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment CanadaCanada Centre for Inland WatersBurlingtonCanada
  2. 2.MississaugaCanada
  3. 3.Indicator Development and Integration, Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance, Water Science & TechnologyEnvironment CanadaMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations