Correlates of nicotine dependence in men with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 33-year follow-up

  • Lourdes García Murillo
  • María A. Ramos-Olazagasti
  • Rachel G. Klein
  • Salvatore Mannuzza
  • Francisco Xavier CastellanosEmail author
Original Article


Identify correlates of nicotine dependence [lifetime (l) and ongoing (o)] in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. We conducted a 33-year prospective follow-up of boys (mean age 8) with combined type ADHD (n = 135/207, 65% original sample). Correlates of nicotine dependence in adulthood were selected from characteristics obtained in childhood and adolescence. Among selected childhood features, only immature behavior was significantly related to nicotine dependence (OR(o) = 0.29, p = 0.02), indexing decreased risk. In contrast, several adolescent variables significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with nicotine dependence at mean age 41, including alcohol substance use disorder (SUD, OR(l) = 4.97), non-alcohol SUD (OR(o) = 4.33/OR(l) = 10.93), parental antisocial personality disorder (OR(l) = 4.42), parental SUD (OR(l) = 3.58), dropped out of school (OR(l) = 2.29), impulsivity (OR(o) = 1.53/OR(l) = 1.59), hyperactivity (OR(o) = 1.38), and number of antisocial behaviors (OR(o) = 1.10/OR(l) = 1.14). Results highlight the role of adolescent psychopathology in the development of nicotine dependence, motivating prospective longitudinal efforts to better define the developmental trajectories of risk and protection.


ADHD Prediction Nicotine dependence Longitudinal method 



This research was supported by NIH Grants R01MH18579 (RGK) and T32 MH067763 and R01DA016979 (FXC). LGM was supported by an Advanced Training Fellowship from the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation, Spain. Authors thank the Alicia Koplowitz Foundation for supporting Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any financial interest in relation to this study or its results.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lourdes García Murillo
    • 1
    • 2
  • María A. Ramos-Olazagasti
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rachel G. Klein
    • 2
    • 5
  • Salvatore Mannuzza
    • 2
  • Francisco Xavier Castellanos
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryHospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro MajadahondaMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Child Study CenterHassenfeld Children’s Hospital at NYU LangoneNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Reproductive Health and Family Formation and Hispanic InstituteChild TrendsBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric ResearchOrangeburgUSA

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