Advertisement

Die Soft Power des Heiligen Stuhls. Unsichtbare Legionen zwischen internationaler Gesellschaft und Weltgesellschaft

  • Jodok Troy
Studien

Zusammenfassung

Gerade weil der Heilige Stuhl keine hard power im traditionellen Verständnis besitzt, entwickelten sich insbesondere im Laufe des internationalen politischen Engagements während des 20. Jahrhunderts sowohl ausgeprägte soft power-Fähigkeiten als auch extensive diplomatische Aktivitäten. Dieses Engagement des Heiligen Stuhls findet dabei immer vor dem Hintergrund einer spezifischen Friedensvision statt. Dieser Beitrag deckt das Spektrum an soft power-Fähigkeiten auf und stellt es in den theoretischen Kontext der Englischen Schule – vor allem deshalb, weil der Heilige Stuhl die Verwirklichung seiner normativen Vorstellung von internationaler Politik durch soft power anstrebt, was am besten auf die Formel „von der internationalen Gesellschaft zur Weltgesellschaft“ gebracht werden kann.

Schlüsselwörter

Heiliger Stuhl Vatikan Soft Power Englische Schule Diplomatie Papst Völkerrecht 

The Soft Power of the Holy See. Invisible Legions Between International and World Society

Abstract

Since the Holy See has no capabilities in terms of traditional hard power, it has developed considerable soft power capabilities and extensive diplomatic ties in the course of the 20th century. The activities of the Holy See always take place against the background of a specific vision of peace. This article explores the set of soft power capabilities and puts it into the theoretical context of the English School. This is mainly because the normative conception of the Holy See regarding international politics—pursued through soft power—can best be described with the formula “from international to world society”.

Keywords

Holy See Vatican Soft power English School Diplomacy Pope International law 

Literatur

  1. Albright, M. (2006). The mighty & almighty. Reflections on America, God and world affairs. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  2. Appleby, R. (2000). The ambivalence of the sacred. Religion, violence, and reconciliation. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  3. Bärsch, C.-E. (2005). „Wer Religion verkennt, erkennt Politik nicht!“. Perspektiven der Religionspolitologie. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.Google Scholar
  4. Benedikt XVI. (2006). Glaube und Vernunft. Die Regensburger Vorlesung. Vollständige Ausgabe. Freiburg i. Br.: Herder.Google Scholar
  5. Benedikt XVI. (2009). Caritas in veritate. Enzyklika.  http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20090629_caritas-in-veritate_ge.html. Zugegriffen: 20. Mai 2010.
  6. Berger, P. (2005). Religion and global civil society. In M. Juergensmeyer (Hrsg.), Religion in global civil society (S. 11–22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkmann, B. (2008). Katholische Kirche und Europäische Union im Dialog für die Menschen. Eine Annäherung aus Kirchenrecht und Europarecht. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.Google Scholar
  8. Brocker, M., & Hildebrandt, M. (Hrsg.). (2008). Friedensstiftende Religionen? Religion und die Deeskalation politischer Konflikte. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. Bull, H. (2002). The anarchical society. A study of order in world politics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Butterfield, H. (1950). Christianity and history. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  11. Butterfield, H. (1954). Christianity, diplomacy and war. New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury.Google Scholar
  12. Buzan, B. (2004). From international to world society? English School theory and the social structure of globalisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardinale, H. (1976). The Holy See and the international order. Toronto: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Casanova, J. (1994). Public religions in the modern world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Casanova, J. (2008). Public religions revisited. In H. de Vries (Hrsg.), Religion: beyond the concept (S. 101–119). New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Casaroli, A. (1981). Der Heilige Stuhl und die Völkergemeinschaft. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Churchill, W. (1985). The gathering storm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  18. Coppa, F. (2008). Between morality and diplomacy. The Vatican’s „Silence“ during the Holocaust. Journal of Church & State, 50(3), 541–568.Google Scholar
  19. Cortright, D. (2008). Peace. A history of movements and ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dacey, A. (2008). The secular conscience. Why belief belongs in public life. Amherst: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  21. Dawkins, R. (2007). The God delusion. London: Black Swan.Google Scholar
  22. Della Cava, R. (1992). Vatican policy, 1978–90. An updated review. Social Research, 59(1), 169–199.Google Scholar
  23. Douthat, R. (2009). Dan Brown’s America. The New York Times.Google Scholar
  24. Duffield, J. (2007). What are international institutions? International Studies Review, 9, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Essig, A., & Moore, J. (2009). U.S. – Holy See diplomacy. The establishment of formal relations, 1984. Catholic History Review, 95(4), 741–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farr, T. (2008). World of faith and freedom. Why international religious liberty is vital to American national security. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. FAZ.net. (15. Juli 2009). Kein Tag ohne Todesdrohung. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.  http://www.faz.net/s/RubDDBDABB9457A437BAA85A49C26FB23A0/Doc~E370569581F474DE8BF6C92DC498955CE~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html. Zugegriffen: 20. Mai 2010.
  28. Ferguson, N. (2003). Gedanken zur Macht. Europäische Rundschau, 2003(1), 3–10.Google Scholar
  29. Fukuyama, F. (2006). The end of history and the last man. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gärtner, H. (2005). Internationale Sicherheit. Definitionen von A–Z. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  31. Grasso, K., & Hunt, R. (Hrsg.). (2007). Catholicism and religious freedom. Contemporary reflections on Vatican II’s declaration on religious liberty. Lanham: Sheed & Ward.Google Scholar
  32. Haass, R. (2009). War of necessity, war of choice. A memory of two iraq wars. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  33. Hanson, E. (1987). The Catholic Church in world politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hatzopoulos, P. (Hrsg.). (2003). Religion in international relations. The return from exile. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  35. Haule, R. (2006). Der Heilige Stuhl/Vatikanstaat im Völkerrecht. Lohmar: Eul.Google Scholar
  36. Haynes, J. (2007). An introduction to international relations and religion. Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  37. Hinze, C. (2009). The drama of social sin and the (im)possibility of solidarity. Reinhold Niebuhr and modern Catholic social teaching. Studies in Christian Ethics, 22(4), 442–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoffmann, J. (Hrsg.). (2006). The just war and Jjihad. Violence in Judaism, Christianity, & Islam. New York: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  39. Holtz, G. (2007). Damit Gott sei alles in allem. Studien zum paulinischen und frühjüdischen Universalismus. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  40. Huntington, S. (1993). The third wave. Democratization in the late twentieth century. London: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jackson, R. (2000). The global covenant. Human conduct in a world of states. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Johannes Paul II. (1987). Sollicitudo rei socialis.  http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_30121987_sollicitudo-rei-socialis_ge.html. Zugegriffen: 20. Mai 2010.
  43. Johnson, J. (2008). The idea of defense in historical and contemporary thinking about just war. Journal of Religious Ethics, 36(4), 543–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnston, D. (2003). Faith-based diplomacy and preventive engagement. In D. Johnston (Hrsg.), Faith-based diplomacy. Trumping realpolitik (S. 11–29). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Johnstone, B. (2003). Pope John Paul II and the war in Iraq. Studia Moralia, 41(2), 309–330.Google Scholar
  46. Juergensmeyer, M. (Hrsg.). (2005). Religion in global civil society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kallscheuer, O. (2005). Der Vatikan als Global Player. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 2005(7), 7–14.Google Scholar
  48. Kant, I. (2008). Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf. Stuttgart: Reclam.Google Scholar
  49. Kippenberg, H. (2008). Gewalt als Gottesdienst. Religionskriege im Zeitalter der Globalisierung. München: Beck.Google Scholar
  50. Köchler, H. (2006). Religion, reason and violence. Pope Benedict XVI and Islam. Statement by the resident of the International Progress Organization, Prof. Dr. Hans Koechler, on the lecture delivered by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg on 12 September 2006.  http://www.i-p-o.org/koechler-Religion_Reason_Violence-16Sept06.htm. Zugegriffen: 20. Mai 2010.
  51. Köck, H. (1975). Die völkerrechtliche Stellung des Heiligen Stuhls. Dargestellt an seinen Beziehungen zu Staaten und internationalen Organisationen. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.Google Scholar
  52. Kurth, J. (1993). The Vaticans foreign policy. The National Interest, 1993(32), 30–52.Google Scholar
  53. Laudy, M. (2000). The Vatican mediation of the Beagle channel dispute. Crisis intervention and forum building. In M. Greenberg, J. Barton, & M. McGuinness (Hrsg.), Words over war. Mediation and arbitration to prevent deadly conflict (S. 293–320). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  54. Leung, B. (2000). Catholic bridging efforts with China. Religion, State and Society, 28(2), 185–195.Google Scholar
  55. Linklater, A. (2007). Distant suffering and cosmopolitan obligations. International Politics, 44, 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lüpke, J. von. (2009). Responsibility as response. Biblical-theological remarks on the concept of responsibility. Studies in Christian Ethics, 22(4), 461–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lynch, C. (2009). A Neo-Weberian approach to religion in international politics. International Theory, 1(3), 381–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marshall, P., & Gilbert, L. (1997). Their blood cries out. The untold story of persecution against Christians in the modern world. Dallas: Word Pub.Google Scholar
  59. Mayr-Singer, J. (2000). Unheilige Allianz oder segensreiche Partnerschaft. Der Heilige Stuhl und die Vereinten Nationen. Vereinte Nationen, 2000(6), 193–195.Google Scholar
  60. Modood, T. (2010). Moderate secularism, religion as identity and respect for religion. The Political Quarterly, 81(1), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morgenthau, H. J. (1956). Politics among nations. The struggle for power and peace. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  62. Müller, J. (1916). Die völkerrechtliche Stellung des Papstes und die Friedenskonferenzen. Einsiedeln: Verlagsanstalt Benzinger.Google Scholar
  63. Müller, J. (Hrsg.). (1927). Das Friedenswerk der Kirche in den letzten drei Jahrhunderten. Die Diplomatie des Vatikans im Dienste des Weltfriedens seit dem Kongress von Vervins 1598. Berlin: Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft für Politik und Geschichte.Google Scholar
  64. Nardin, T. (1983). Law, morality and the relations of states. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Nardin, T., & Mapel, D. (Hrsg.). (1992). Traditions of international ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Neale, P. (1998). The bodies of Christ as international bodies. The Holy See, Wom(B)an and the Cairo conference. Review of International Studies, 24(1), 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neuhaus, R. (2006). The Regensburg moment. First Things, 2006, 63–65.Google Scholar
  68. Norris, P., & Ingelhart, R. (2004). Sacred and secular. Religion and politics worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nye, J. (2004). Soft power. The means to success in world politics. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  70. Nye, J. (2009). Get smart. Combining hard and soft power. Foreign Affairs, 2009, 160.Google Scholar
  71. O’Connor, B. (2005). Papal diplomacy. John Paul II and the culture of peace. South Bend: St. Augustine’s Press.Google Scholar
  72. Onuf, N. (2002). Institutions, intentions and international relations. Review of International Studies, 28(2), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Päpstlicher Rat für Gerechtigkeit und Frieden. (2006). Kompendium der Soziallehre der Kirche. Freiburg i. Br.: Herder.Google Scholar
  74. Philpott, D. (2001). Revolutions in sovereignty. How ideas shaped modern international relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Philpott, D. (2004). The Catholic wave. Journal of Democracy, 15(2), 32–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Philpott, D. (2007). Explaining the political ambivalence of religion. American Political Science Review, 101(3), 505–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Philpott, D. (2009). Has the study of global politics found religion? Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Princen, T. (1987). International mediation – The view from the Vatican. Lessons from mediating the Beagle channel dispute. Negotiation Journal, 3(4), 347–366.Google Scholar
  79. Princen, T. (1992). Mediation by a transnational organization. The case of the Vatican. In J. Bercovitch (Hrsg.), Mediation in international relations. Multiple approaches to conflict management (S. 149–175). Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  80. Reus-Smit, C. (2002). Imagining society. Constructivism and the English School. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 4(3), 487–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Röhrich, W. (2006). Die Macht der Religionen. Im Spannungsfeld der Weltpolitik. München: Beck.Google Scholar
  82. Rotte, R. (2007). Die Außen- und Friedenspolitik des Heiligen Stuhls. Eine Einführung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  83. Rotte, R. (2008). Der Heilige Stuhl im Reich der Mitte. Blätter zur deutschen und internationalen Politik, 53(2), 27–30.Google Scholar
  84. Rudolph, S. (1997). Introduction. Religion, states, and transnational civil society. In S. Rudolph (Hrsg.), Transnational religion and fading states (S. 1–24). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  85. Russett, B. (1995). Grasping the democratic peace. Principles for a post-cold war world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Ryall, D. (1998). How many divisions? The Modern development of Catholic international relations. International Relations, 14(2), 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ryall, D. (2001). The Catholic Church as a transnational actor. In W. Wallace & D. Josselin (Hrsg.), Non-state actors in world politics (S. 41–58). New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  88. Saunders, R. (2008). The Ummah as nation. A reappraisal in the wake of the ‚Cartoons Affair‘. Nations and Nationalism, 14(2), 303–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schäfer, H. (2004). The Janus face of religion. On the religious factor in ‚New Wars‘. Numen: International Review for the History of Religions, 51(4), 407–431.Google Scholar
  90. Schall, J. (2007). The Regensburg lecture. South Bend: St. Augustine’s Press.Google Scholar
  91. Sending, O., & Neumann, I. (2006). Governance to governmentality. Analyzing NGOs, states, and power. International Studies Quarterly, 50(3), 651–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharp, P. (2009). Diplomatic theory of international relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Sharp, P., & Wiseman, G. (Hrsg.). (2007). The diplomatic corps as an institution of international society. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  94. Shea, N. (1997). In the Lion’s den. A shocking account of persecution and martyrdom of Christians today & how we should respond. Nashville: Broadman & Holman.Google Scholar
  95. Shelledy, R. (2004). The Vatican’s role in global politics. SAIS Review, 24(2), 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shelledy, R. (2009). The Catholic tradition and the state. Natural, necessary, and nettlesome. In S. Joireman (Hrsg.), Church, state, and citizen. Christian approaches to political engagement (S. 15–34). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Smith, C. (2003). Moral, believing animals. Human personhood and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Sodano, A. (2005). Ansprache von Kardinal Angelo Sodano beim Gipeltreffen der Staatsoberhäupter und Regierungschefs anlässlich der 60. Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen.  http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/secretariat_state/2005/documents/rc_seg-st_20050916_onu_ge.html. Zugegriffen: 20. Mai 2010.
  99. Strange, S. (1984). What about international relations? In S. Strange (Hrsg.), Paths to international political economy (S. 183–197). London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  100. Strange, S. (1989). Toward a theory of transnational empire. In E.-O. Czempiel & J. Rosenau (Hrsg.), Global changes and theoretical challenges. Approaches to world politics for the 1990’s (S. 161–176). Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  101. Suganami, H. (2001). Alexander Wendt and the English School. Journal of International Relations and Development, 4(4), 403–423.Google Scholar
  102. Thomas, S. (2005). The global resurgence of religion and the transformation of international relations. The struggle for the soul of the twenty-first century. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vaillancourt, J.-G. (1980). Papal power. A study of Vatican control over lay catholic elites. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  104. Vincent, R. (1986). Human rights and international relations. Issues and responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Waltz, K. (1979). Theory of international politics. Reading: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  106. Walzer, M. (1990). Zwei Arten des Universalismus. Babylon, 1990(7), 7–25.Google Scholar
  107. Weber, M. (1980). Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie. J. Winckelmann (Hrsg.). Tübingen: Mohr.Google Scholar
  108. Webster, A., & Cole, D. (2004). The virtue of war. Reclaiming the classic Christian traditions east and west. Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press.Google Scholar
  109. Weigel, G. (1991). Freedom and its discontents. Catholicism confronts modernity. Washington: Ethics and Public Policy Center (Distributed by arrangement with National Book Network).Google Scholar
  110. Weigel, G. (1992). The final revolution. The resistance church and the collapse of communism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Weigel, G. (2004). World order. What Catholics forgot. First Things, 2004, 31–38.Google Scholar
  112. Weingardt, M. (2007). Religion Macht Frieden. Das Friedenspotential von Religionen in politischen Gewaltkonflikten. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  113. Wessels, D. (2009). Religion and Globalization. In J. Haynes (Hrsg.), Routledge handbook of religion and politics (S. 323–339). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Wight, M. (1978). Power politics. London: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Wight, M. (1991). International theory. The three traditions. Leicester: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Wuthe, P. (2002). Für Menschenrechte und Religionsfreiheit in Europa. Die Politik des Heiligen Stuhls in der KSZE/OSZE. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  117. Xenias, A. (2005). Can global peace last even if achieved? Huntington and the democratic peace. International Studies Review, 7, 357–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zakaria, F. (2008). The post-American world. New York: Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  119. Zweites Vatikanisches Konzil. (1966). Pastoralkonstitution über die Kirche in der Welt von heute. Verabschiedet und promulgiert in der Schlussfeier am 7. Dezember 1965. Luzern: Rex-Verlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für PolitikwissenschaftUniversität InnsbruckInnsbruckÖsterreich

Personalised recommendations