For all of American Jewry’s obsession with demography, the field remains murky and imprecise. There is disagreement over how many Jews there are and, whatever the number, what they believe and how they act. The distancing debate reflects this situation. Inevitably, intermarriage takes a toll in commitment to Israel, as well as in all other areas that constitute Jewish identity. At the end of the day, the issue of how American Jews relate to Israel is entwined in the powerful impact of advanced assimilation.