Food Engineering Reviews

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 231–240 | Cite as

Processing Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ) by High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) Technology: Changes in the Viscoelastic Properties

  • Thiago S. LeiteEmail author
  • Pedro E. D. Augusto
  • Marcelo Cristianini
Original Paper


The rheological properties of a fluid have an important role in process development and optimization. Due to its high concentration, frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) shows viscoelastic behaviour, especially at low temperatures. In this study, high pressure homogenization (HPH) processing (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 MPa) was used to change the viscoelastic properties of FCOJ. The rheological behaviour of the FCOJ, before and after HPH processing, was evaluated using dynamic frequency sweep procedures. The storage (G′) and loss (G″) moduli were modelled as a function of the oscillatory frequency using the power law. The sample processed at 0 MPa showed G′ > G″. On the other hand, all other samples presented G″ > G′. Both the elastic and viscous behaviours decreased with increasing homogenization pressure. The power law parameters were then modelled as a function of the homogenization pressure using exponential functions. Also, the Cox–Merz rule was verified for all the samples, showing good applicability when a linear mathematical modification was applied. The reduction in the elastic and viscous components was explained by the reduction in particle size and molecular size of the serum constituents. A decrease in viscoelasticity leads to less resistance to flow and therefore to lower energy costs for the FCOJ process. These results are useful to understand the phenomena leading to an industrial application of this technology.


Fruit juices High pressure homogenization Rheology Viscoelasticity Cox–Merz rule 

List of symbols


Linear modification of the Cox–Merz rule, Eq. 8 (–)


Linear modification of the Cox–Merz rule, Eq. 9 (–)

\( \dot{\gamma } \)

Shear rate (s−1)


Viscosity (Pa s)


Apparent viscosity (Pa s)


Complex viscosity (Pa s)


Shear stress (Pa)


Yield stress (Pa)


Oscillatory frequency (Hz)


Storage (elastic) modulus (Pa)


Loss (viscous) modulus (Pa)


Complex modulus (Pa)


Consistency coefficient for the storage modulus power law (Eq. 1) (Pa s n)


Consistency coefficient for the loss modulus power law (Eq. 2) (Pa s n)


Behaviour coefficient for the storage modulus power law (Eq. 1) (–)


Behaviour coefficient for the loss modulus power law (Eq. 2) (–)


Homogenization pressure (MPa)

tan δ

Loss tangent = G″/G′ (–)



The authors are grateful to the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for funding project no. 2012/15253-9 and for awarding a scholarship to TS Leite (2012/17381-4).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thiago S. Leite
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pedro E. D. Augusto
    • 2
  • Marcelo Cristianini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Technology (DTA), School of Food Engineering (FEA)University of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Agri-food Industry, Food and Nutrition (LAN), Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ)University of São Paulo (USP)PiracicabaBrazil

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