2,3-butanediol Induces Systemic Acquired Resistance in the Plant Immune Response
Plants harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms, which are involved in major plant functions such as nutrition and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recently, the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized. Therefore, we researched the effects of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) in order to obtain insights into systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression. Syringe infiltration with Paenibacillus polymyxa DSM 365 surprisingly mitigated cell damage, which was induced by the compatible plant pathogen Phytophtora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn). Furthermore, syringe infiltration with 2,3-BD produced from P. polymyxa effectively enhanced SAR to compatible Ppn through down-regulation of ROS biosynthetic genes (NtRbohD and NtRbohF) and up-regulation of ROS detoxification and PR protein expression. In addition, synergy between 2,3-BD and nonexpressor pathogenesis-related protein 1 (NPR1) enhanced resistance to pathogen infection. Taken together, our study demonstrates the potential applicability of leaf and root-associated microbiomes as biopestcides to increase efficiency and yield in agricultural systems.
Keywords2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) Nonexpressor pathogenesis-related protein 1 (NPR1) Paenibacillus polymyxa Plant immunity Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)
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