Genome-wide analysis of Gro/Tup1 family corepressors and their responses to hormones and abiotic stresses in maize
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Gro/Tup1 proteins act as negative transcriptional regulators and play crucial roles in many growth and developmental processes in a wide range of organisms. However, our understanding of Gro/Tup1 protein functions in plants is confined to the model plant Arabidopsis. Here, 11 Gro/Tup1 genes, which were characterized by the typical LisH and WD40 repeat domains, were identified in maize through a genome-wide survey. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that maize Gro/Tup1 proteins could be divided into three subfamilies, in which members shared similar protein and gene structures. The predicted maize Gro/Tup1 genes were distributed on seven chromosomes and segmental duplication contributed to their expansion. Many predicted cis-elements associated with hormones, biotic- or abioticstress responses, meristem and seed development, and circadian rhythms, were found in their putative promoter regions. A potential associated protein analysis identified a large number of candidates, including transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes, protein kinases, and ubiquitinconjugating enzymes. An expression profile derived from the RNA-seq data indicated that Gro/Tup1 genes in maize were widely expressed in various organs and tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that these genes responded to at least one hormone or abiotic stress, either in roots or in shoots. Our study provides useful information on the Gro/Tup1 genes in maize and will facilitate the further functional validation of these genes in growth and development, hormone responses, and biotic- or abiotic-stress resistance.
KeywordsAssociation protein Cis-element Expression profile Maize Gro/Tup1 Phylogenetic analysis
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