Advertisement

Geoheritage

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Mining Heritage and Relevant Geosites as Possible Instruments for Sustainable Development of Miner Towns in Turkey

  • Nizamettin KazancıEmail author
  • Yaşar Suludere
  • Aysen Özgüneylioğlu
  • Necip S. Mülazımoğlu
  • Fuat Şaroğlu
  • Hamdi Mengi
  • Sonay Boyraz-Aslan
  • Esra Gürbüz
  • Tahsin Onur Yücel
  • Merve Ersöz
  • Özden İleri
  • Hülya İnaner
  • Alper Gürbüz
Original Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

History of mining in Anatolia goes back to the pre-pottery Neolithic in parallel to history of ancient civilizations in the region. Based on archaeological findings, native copper was the first metal used by humans, and right after, it was mined in central Anatolia. The mining of copper seemed to cause both the birth of metallurgy and powerful civilizations (e.g. Hittites, Assyrians, Lydians, Phrygians). Long-time mining of copper, lead, tin, gold and silver formed and left rich and valuable scientific and cultural heritages in Anatolia. They have been used efficiently in archaeological studies; however, miners’ towns need sustainable development now and the mining heritage could be a potential on it. In this study, potential of the mining geoheritages and some relevant geosites have been presented.

Keywords

Mining heritage Metallic ore mines Geoconservation Public awareness Anatolia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Guest editor Ewa Glowniak significantly improved the manuscript. We are grateful for her encouraging comments and many constructive suggestions. Authors also would like to thank Ahmet Çınar, the previous governor of Zonguldak city, and the old representatives of Küre town for their initiatives and encouragements on geoconservation.

References

  1. Akurgal E (1997) Anadolu Uygarlıkları. TÜBİTAK Popüler Bilim Kitapları, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  2. Albustanlıoğlu T (2006) The marble usage in the light of Docimium in the Roman empire; the operation strategy and organization of anatolian marble quarries under Roman imperial rule, Ph.D.Thesis, University of Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  3. Alp S (2000) Hitit Çağında Anadolu; Çivi Yazılı ve Hiyeroglif Yazılı Kaynaklar. TÜBİTAK Popüler Bilim Kitapları, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  4. Altun Y, Yılmaz H, Şiner İ, Yazar F (2015) The secrets of massive sulfide deposits on mid-ocean ridges and Küre Mağaradoruk copper deposit. Bull Mineral Res Explor 150:51–66Google Scholar
  5. Ay M, Tolun V (2017) Troas Bölgesi’ndeki antik granit ocakları; yeni bulgular. Çanakkale Araşt. Türk Yıl 23:265–295Google Scholar
  6. Aydın İ (2006) Madencilik-şehirleşme ilişkisine farklı bir örnek Balya. Marmara Coğr Derg 12:133–147Google Scholar
  7. Bossert HT (1954) Untersuchungen hieroglyphen-hetitischen. Worter 1. Das Wart gut in den Kleinasiatischen Sprachen Mitteilungen des. Instituts für Orientforschung Bd 2:78–103Google Scholar
  8. Çeçen S, Gökçek G (2015) Asur ticaret kolonileri dönemi tüccarlarından Uşur-ša-İštar’ın saray ve kurumlar ile yazışmalarından bazı örnekler. Cappadocia Jour Hist Soc Sci 4:189–201 (in Turkish with English abstract)Google Scholar
  9. Dücan E (2016) Türkiye’de iç göçün sosyo-ekonomik nedenlerinin bölgesel analizi. Ekon Sos Araşt Derg 12:167–183Google Scholar
  10. Fidan E (2016) Tarih öncesi dönemlerde Anadolu’da kullanılmış olan maden yatakları. Yealtı Kay Derg 9:49–59Google Scholar
  11. Gjelsviz T (1962) Kuzeybatı Anadolu Pb–Zn zuhurlarında yapılan araştırmalar. Bull Mineral Res Explor 59:61–70 (in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  12. Guerney OR (1990) The Hittites. Penguin Books, MiddlesexGoogle Scholar
  13. Güner M (1979) Küre civarının masif sülfit yatakları ve jeolojisi, Pontidler (Kuzey Türkiye). Bull Mineral Res Explor 93/94:65–110 (in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  14. Hawkins JD (1969) A hieroglyphic Hittite inscription from Porsuk. Anatol Stud 19:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalaç M (1976) Bolkar-Maden Kaya Yazıtı. Anadolu Araşt 5/6:61–69Google Scholar
  16. Kaptan E (1990) Türkiye madencilik tarihine ait buluntular. Bull Mineral Res Explor 111:175–186 (in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  17. Kaptan E (2000) Eski Anadolu Madenciliğine ait Buluntular. In: Ercan T (ed) Cumhuriyetin 75. Yıldönümü Yerbilimleri ve Madencilik Kongresi. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, pp 763–769Google Scholar
  18. Kartalkanat A (2014) New age findings in ancient mining valley in Bolkar Mountains and first mining licence: Yazılıtaş, Niğde. Geol Bull Turk 57(2):53–71 (in Turkish with extended English summary)Google Scholar
  19. Kazancı N, Kuzucuoğlu C (2019) Threats and conservation of landscapes in Turkey. In: Kuzucuoğlu C, Çiner A, Kazancı N (eds) Landscapes and landforms of Turkey. Springer Nature, Switzerland, pp 603–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kazancı N, Şaroglu F, Kırman E, Uysal F (2005) Basic threats on geosites and geoheritages in Turkey. In: Miyovic D (ed) The Proccedings of the Second Conference on Geoheritage of Serbia. The European Association for the Conservation of the Geological Heritage, Belgrade, pp 149–153Google Scholar
  21. Kazancı N, Şaroğlu F, Doğan A, Mülazımoğlu N (2012) Geoconservation and geoheritage in Turkey. In: Wimbledon WAP, Smith-Meyer S (eds) Geoheritage in Europe and its conservation. ProGeo Pub, Oslo, pp 366–377Google Scholar
  22. Kazancı N, Şaroğlu F, Suludere Y (2015) Geological heritage and framework list of the geosites in Turkey. Bull Mineral Res Explor 151:261–270 (in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  23. Kovenko V (1940) Balya kurşun madenleri (Lead mines in Balya area). Bull Mineral Res Explor 21:580–597 (in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  24. Kurlansky M (2003) Salt; a world history. Penguin Books, N.YGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuzucuoğlu C, Çiner A, Kazancı N (2019) Landscapes and landforms of Turkey. Springer Nature, SwitzerlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lazzarini L (1987) I Graniti dei Monumenti Italiani e i loro Problemi di Deterioramento. In: Bueca A, Tabasso ML (eds) Materiali lapidei: problemi relativi allo studio del degrado e della conservazione. Zecca dello Stato, Rome, pp 157–173Google Scholar
  27. Okay Aİ, Tüysüz O (1999) Tethyan sutures of northern Turkey. In: Durand B, Jolivet L, Horvath E, Seranne M (eds) The Mediterranean basins: tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 156, pp 475–515Google Scholar
  28. Richards JP (2015) Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Tethyan orogen: from subduction to collision. Ore Geol Rev 70:323–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Satır M, Zöldföldi J (2003) Provenance studies of pottery and granite columns in Troia. In: Wagner G, Pernicka E, Uerpmann HE (eds) Troia and the Troad scientific approaches. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmidt K (2011) Göbeklitepe. In: Özdoğan M, Başgelen N, Kuniholm P (eds) Neolithic in Turkey / Euphrate Basin V.2. Arkeoloji Sanat Yayınları, İstanbul, pp 85–138 (in English)Google Scholar
  31. Steadman S (2010) Prehistoric settlements in central Anatolia. In: Steadman SR, Ross JC (eds) Agency and identity in the ancient near east; new paths forward. Equinox Publishing Ltd, London, pp 27–46Google Scholar
  32. Toptaş M, Çimen S, Kavaklı N (2014) 5995 Sayılı Maden Kanunu ile yapılan değişikliklerin ruhsat sayıları ve toplanan harç gelirleri üzerindeki etkileri. Yeraltı Kay Der 6:23–32Google Scholar
  33. Turney CSM, Brown H (2007) Catastrophic early Holocene sea level rise, human migration and the Neolithic transition in Europe. Quat Sci Rev 26:2036–2041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tuzcu A, Bademli K (2014) Göçün Psiko-sosyal boyutu. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar Dergisi 6:56–66Google Scholar
  35. Varol B, Şevket Ş, Ayyıldız A, Sözeri K, Karakas Z, Métais G (2016) Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Cenozoic deposits in the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, northeastern Turkey. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 105:107–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yalçın Ü (2000) Anfänge der metallverwendung in Anatolien. In: Yalçın Ü (ed) Anatolian Metal I, Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 13, Bochum, pp 17–30Google Scholar
  37. Yalçın Ü (2016) Synopsis on Anatolian mining history. J Undergr Resour 9:3–13 (in Turkish with English abstract)Google Scholar
  38. Yalçın Ü, İpek Ö (2012) Derekutugun tarih öncesi maden işletmeleri. In: İpek Ö, Ogun Z (eds) 2. Çorum Kazı ve Araştırmalar Sempozyumu Kitabı, Çorum, pp 11–31Google Scholar
  39. Yasuda Y (ed) (2002a) The origins pottery and agricultures. International Research Center for Japanese Studies. Roli Books Pvt, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  40. Yasuda Y (2002b) The second east side story; origin of agriculture in west Asia. In: Yasuda Y (ed) Origins of pottery and agriculture, International Research Centre for Japanese Studies. Roli Books Pvt, New Delhi, pp 15–38Google Scholar
  41. Yavuz EV (2014) Antique quarries of marmor troadense, NW Turkey: insights from field mapping and absolute dating. Turk J Earthsci 23:495–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yener A, Özbal H, Kaptan E, Pehlivan AN, Goodway M (1989) Kestel; an early bronze age source of tin ore in the Taurus Mountains, Turkey. Science 244:200–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The European Association for Conservation of the Geological Heritage 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nizamettin Kazancı
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yaşar Suludere
    • 1
  • Aysen Özgüneylioğlu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Necip S. Mülazımoğlu
    • 1
  • Fuat Şaroğlu
    • 1
  • Hamdi Mengi
    • 1
  • Sonay Boyraz-Aslan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Esra Gürbüz
    • 4
  • Tahsin Onur Yücel
    • 1
  • Merve Ersöz
    • 1
    • 5
  • Özden İleri
    • 3
  • Hülya İnaner
    • 1
    • 5
  • Alper Gürbüz
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Jeolojik Mirası Koruma Derneği (JEMİRKO)Maltepe, AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüAnkara ÜniversitesiGölbaşı, AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel MüdürlüğüAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Harita Mühendisliği BölümüAksaray ÜniversitesiAksarayTurkey
  5. 5.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüDokuz Eylül ÜniversitesiİzmirTurkey
  6. 6.Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüNiğde Ömer Halidemir ÜniversitesiNiğdeTurkey

Personalised recommendations