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Geoheritage

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A Crucial Site in the Argument Between Neptunists and Plutonists: Reopening of the Historical Adit in the Komorní hůrka (Kammerbühl) Volcano After 180 Years

  • Vladislav Rapprich
  • Jan Valenta
  • Milan Brož
  • Eva Kadlecová
  • Benjamin van Wyk de Vries
  • Michael S. Petronis
  • Petr Rojík
Original Article

Abstract

A small, inconspicuous scoria cone in western Bohemia, known as Komorní hůrka Hill, played a crucial role during the controversy between Plutonists and Neptunists over the origin of rocks in the first half of the nineteenth century. The year 2017 represents the 180th anniversary of one successful resolution of this debate: at the instigation of J.W. Goethe, adits were dug into this volcano to access its feeding system in order to observe whether volcanoes were fed by burning coal seams, or feeder dikes of magma. The adits into Komorní hůrka Hill were the first large earth-works with a solely scientific goal and with no commercial mining purposes. The basaltic feeder exposed in the adits decided definitively in favour of the Plutonists after decades of ongoing arguments with the Neptunists. Here, we summarize the overall history of this small volcano. A recently conducted ground geophysical survey confirmed the position of historical adits, marked on several archive sketches. The geophysical data, comprising ground magnetometry, electric resistivity tomography and refraction seismic profiles, also revealed the internal structure of the volcano, including the position of the feeder dike and the geometry of a lava flow emitted from the crater. With the position of these historical adits confirmed by geophysical survey, excavations can safely reopen these historical earth-works and provide access to a wider public. Komorní hůrka could then serve as an educational geosite to exhibit the structure of a small monogenetic volcano, as well as illustrating a stage in the history of Earth Sciences.

Keywords

Geoheritage Neptunists Plutonists Komorní hůrka volcano Ground geophysics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project of Re-opening of the historical adits in Komorní hůrka Volcano is supported by the programme of Regional Cooperation between the Regions and the Institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences in (grant R100121621). This contribution has been prepared with additional support from the Czech Geological Survey (to Rapprich and Kadlecová) and by New Mexico Highlands University Faculty Research funds (to Petronis). The quality of the manuscript benefited from constructive comments by an anonymous reviewer and Károly Németh, as well as from recommendations by handling editor Kevin Page. Special thanks are addressed to Francis van Wyk de Vries for careful language editing.

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© The European Association for Conservation of the Geological Heritage 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Czech Geological SurveyPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of Engineering Geology, Hydrogeology, and Applied Geophysics, Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Institute of GeophysicsAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansUniversité Clermont AuvergneClermont-FerrandFrance
  5. 5.Environmental Geology, Natural Resources Management DepartmentNew Mexico Highlands UniversityLas VegasUSA
  6. 6.Sokolovská uhelná, a.sSokolovCzech Republic

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