Geoheritage

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 119–134 | Cite as

Inventory and Quantitative Assessment of Geosites and Geodiversity Sites: a Review

Review Article

Abstract

The inventory and quantitative assessment of the most valuable occurrences of geodiversity are essential steps in any geoconservation strategy and in the establishment of priorities in site management. Despite the existence of many site inventories applied to different scales (countries, municipalities, parks, etc.), the criteria used for their selection are often unclear and poorly defined. This paper proposes a new approach to the concepts of geosite and geodiversity site and reviews the procedures used in the development of a systematic site inventory applied to different scales and values. Procedures to achieve a numerical evaluation of the value and degradation risk of sites are reviewed and new criteria are proposed. Finally, guidelines are presented, bearing in mind the preparation of effective geodiversity inventories, to support geoparks’ strategies. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding and use of the above-mentioned concepts, which are essential for the implementation of geoconservation actions worldwide.

Keywords

Geosite Geoheritage Geodiversity site Geopark Inventory Geodiversity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author thanks Diamantino Pereira, Flavia Lima, and Paulo Pereira for fruitful discussions and insights; Teresa Mota for the English revision; and the reviewers for significant improvements of the first submitted version. This paper results of the research done at the University of Minho and at the Geology Centre of the University of Porto, partially founded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (Portugal), strategic project with reference PEst-OE/CTE/UI0039/2014.

References

  1. Alexandrowicz Z, Kozlowski S (1999) From selected geosites to geodiversity conservation—Polish example of modern framework. In: Barettino D, Vallejo M, Gallego E (eds) Towards the balanced management and conservation of the geological heritage in the new millenium. Sociedad Geológica de España, Madrid, Spain, pp 40–44Google Scholar
  2. Black GP, Gonggrijp GP (1990) Fundamental thoughts on Earth-science conservation. Jb. Geol. B.-A. Band 133, Heft 4:655–657Google Scholar
  3. Bollati I, Smiraglia C, Pelfini M (2013) Assessment and selection of geomorphosites and trails in the Miage Glacier Area (Western Italian Alps). Environ Manag 51(4):951–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brilha J (2005) Património Geológico e Geoconservação: a Conservação da Natureza na sua Vertente Geológica. Palimage Editores, ViseuGoogle Scholar
  5. Brilha J, Andrade C, Azerêdo A, Barriga FJAS, Cachão M, Couto H, Cunha PP, Crispim JA, Dantas P, Duarte LV, Freitas MC, Granja MH, Henriques MH, Henriques P, Lopes L, Madeira J, Matos JMX, Noronha F, Pais J, Piçarra J, Ramalho MM, Relvas JMRS, Ribeiro A, Santos A, Santos V, Terrinha P (2005) Definition of the Portuguese frameworks with international relevance as an input for the European geological heritage characterisation. Episodes 28(3):177–186Google Scholar
  6. Brilha J, Alcala L, Almeida A, Araújo A, Azerêdo A, Azevedo MR, Barriga F, Brum da Silveira A, Cabral J, Cachão M, Caetano P, Cobos A, Coke C, Couto H, Crispim J, Cunha PP, Dias R, Duarte LV, Dória A, Falé P, Ferreira N, Ferreira Soares A, Fonseca P, Galopim de Carvalho A, Gonçalves R, Granja H, Henriques MH, Kullberg JC, Kullberg MC, Legoinha P, Lima A, Lima E, Lopes L, Madeira J, Marques JF, Martins A, Martins R, Matos J, Medina J, Miranda R, Monteiro C, Moreira M, Moura D, Neto de Carvalho C, Noronha F, Nunes JC, Oliveira JT, Pais J, Pena dos Reis R, Pereira D, Pereira P, Pereira Z, Piçarra J, Pimentel N, Pinto de Jesus A, Prada S, Prego A, Ramalho L, Ramalho M, Ramalho R, Relvas J, Ribeiro A, Ribeiro MA, Rocha R, Sá A, Santos V, Sant’ovaia H, Sequeira A, Sousa M, Terrinha P, Valle Aguado B, Vaz N (2010) O inventário nacional do património geológico: abordagem metodológica e resultados. e-Terra, 18(1)Google Scholar
  7. Browne MAE (2012) Geodiversity and the role of the planning system in Scotland. Scott Geogr J 128(3–4):266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruschi VM, Cendrero A (2009) Direct and parametric methods for the assessment of geosites and geomorphosites. In: Reynard E, Coratza P, Regolini-Bissig G (eds) Geomorphosites. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München. Section II, pp 73–88Google Scholar
  9. Bruschi VM, Cendrero A, Albertos JAC (2011) A statistical approach to the validation and optimisation of geoheritage assessment procedures. Geoheritage 3(3):131–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carcavilla L, López Martínez J, Durán Valsero JJ (2007) Patrimonio geológico y geodiversidad: investigación, conservación, gestión y relación con los espacios naturales protegidos. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, No. 7, IGME, MadridGoogle Scholar
  11. Carcavilla L, Durán JJ, Garcia-Cortés A, López-Martinez J (2009) Geological heritage and geoconservation in Spain: past, present, and future. Geoheritage 1(2–4):75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cendrero A (1996a) El patrimonio geológico. Ideas para su protección, conservación y utilización. In: El patrimonio geológico. Bases para su valoración, protección, conservación y utilización. Serie Monografías del Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente. Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente, Madrid, pp 17–27Google Scholar
  13. Cendrero A. (1996b) Propuestas sobre criterios para la clasificación y catalogación del patrimonio geológico. In: El patrimonio geológico. Bases para su valoración, protección, conservación y utilización. Serie Monografías del Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente. Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Transportes y Medio Ambiente, Madrid, pp 29–38Google Scholar
  14. Coratza P, Giusti C (2005) Methodological proposal for the assessment of scientific quality of geomorphosites. II Quaternario, Italien. J Quat Sci 18(1):307–313Google Scholar
  15. Díaz-Martínez E, Díez-Herrero A (2011) Los elementos biológicos y culturales de interés geológico: un patrimonio a conservar. In Fernández-Martínez E, Castaño de Luis R (eds) Avances y retos en la conservación del Patrimonio Geológico en España. Actas de la IX Reunión Nacional de la Comisión de Patrimonio Geológico (Sociedad Geológica de España), Universidad de León, pp 85–90Google Scholar
  16. Eder W (1999) "UNESCO GEOPARKS"—a new initiative for protection and sustainable development of the Earth’s heritage. N Jb Geol Paläont (Abh) 214(1/2):353–358Google Scholar
  17. Eder W, Patzak M (2004) Geoparks—geological attractions: a tool for public education, recreation and sustainable economic development. Episodes 27(3):162–164Google Scholar
  18. Elízaga E, Gallego E, García-Cortés A (1994) Inventaire nacional des sites d’intérêt géologique en Espagne: méthodologie et déroulement. Mém Soc Geol France 165:103–109Google Scholar
  19. Erikstad L (2008) History of geoconservation in Europe. In: Burek CV, Prosser CD (eds) The history of geoconservation, vol 300. Geological Society, Special Publications, London, pp 249–256Google Scholar
  20. Fassoulas C, Mouriki D, Dimitriou-Nikolakis P, Iliopoulos G (2012) Quantitative assessment of geotopes as an effective tool for geoheritage management. Geoheritage 4(3):177–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fuertes-Gutiérrez I, Fernández-Martínez E (2010) Geosites inventory in the Leon Province (Northwestern Spain): a tool to introduce geoheritage into regional environmental management. Geoheritage 2(1–2):57–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fuertes-Gutiérrez I, Fernández-Martínez E (2012) Mapping geosites for geoheritage management: a methodological proposal for the Regional Park of Picos de Europa (León, Spain). Environ Manag 50:789–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia-Cortés A, Rábano I, Locutura J, Bellido F, Fernández-Gianotti J, Martín-Serrano A, Quesada C, Barnolas A, Durán JJ (2001) First Spanish contribution to the Geosites Project list of the geological frameworks established by consensus. Episodes 24(2):79–92Google Scholar
  24. García-Cortés A, Carcavilla Urquí L (2009) Documento metodológico para la elaboración del inventario español de lugares de interés geológico (IELIG), version 12. Instituto Geológico y Minero de, España, MadridGoogle Scholar
  25. Grandgirard V (1999) Switzerland—the inventory of geotopes of national significance. In: Barettino D, Vallejo M, Gallego E (eds) Towards the balanced management and conservation of the geological heritage in the new millenium. Spain, Sociedad Geológica de España, Madrid, pp 234–236Google Scholar
  26. Gray JM (2008) Geodiversity: developing the paradigma. Proc Geol Assoc 119:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gray JM (2013) Geodiversity: valuing and conserving abiotic nature, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  28. Henriques MH, Pena dos Reis R, Brilha J, Mota TS (2011) Geoconservation as an emerging geoscience. Geoheritage 3(2):117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hjort J, Luoto M (2012) Can geodiversity be predicted from space? Geomorphology 153–154:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee) (1977) Guidelines for selection of Earth Science SSSIs. URL: http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-2317. Accessed in January 2014
  31. Lapo AV, Davydov VI, Pashkevich NG, Petrov VV, Vdovets MS (1993) Methodic principles of study of geological monuments of nature in Russia. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlations I(6):636–644Google Scholar
  32. Lima FF, Brilha JB, Salamuni E (2010) Inventorying geological heritage in large territories: a methodological proposal applied to Brazil. Geoheritage 2(3–4):91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKeever P, Zouros N, Patzak M, Weber J (2010) The UNESCO global network of national geoparks. In: Newsome D, Dowling R (eds) Geotourism: the tourism of geology and landscape. Goodfellow Publishers Ltd, Oxford, pp 221–230Google Scholar
  34. Parkes MA, Morris JH (1999) The Irish Geological Heritage Programme. In: Barettino D, Vallejo M, Gallego E (eds) Towards the balanced management and conservation of the geological heritage in the new millenium. Spain, Sociedad Geológica de España, Madrid, pp 60–64Google Scholar
  35. Patzak M, Eder E (1998) "UNESCO GEOPARK". A new programme—a new UNESCO label. Geol Balc 28(3–4):33–35Google Scholar
  36. Pellitero R, González-Amuchastegui MJ, Ruiz-Flaño P, Serrano E (2011) Geodiversity and geomorphosite assessment applied to a natural protected area: the Ebro and Rudron gorges Natural Park (Spain). Geoheritage 3:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pellitero R, Manosso F, Serrano E (2014) Mid- and large-scale geodiversity calculation in Fuentes Carrionas (NW Spain) and Serra do Cadeado (Paraná, Brazil): methodology and application for land management. Geogr Ann Ser A Phys Geogr. doi: 10.1111/geoa.12057 Google Scholar
  38. Pena dos Reis R, Henriques MH (2009) Approaching an integrated qualification and evaluation system for geological heritage. Geoheritage 1:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pereira P, Pereira DI (2010) Methodological guidelines for geomorphosite assessment. Géomorphol Relief, Processus, Environ 2:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pereira P, Pereira DI (2012) Assessment of geosites tourism value in geoparks: the example of Arouca Geopark (Portugal). Proceedings of the 11th European Geoparks Conference, Arouca: 231–232Google Scholar
  41. Pereira P, Pereira DI, Alves MIC (2007) Geomorphosite assessment in Montesinho Natural Park (Portugal). Geogr Helv 62:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pereira DI, Pereira P, Brilha J, Santos L (2013) Geodiversity assessment of Paraná State (Brazil): an innovative approach. Environ Manag 52(3):541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pralong JP, Reynard E (2005) A proposal for the classification of geomorphological sites depending on their tourist value. Quaternario 18(1):315–321Google Scholar
  44. Prosser CD, Burek CV, Evans DH, Gordon JE, Kirkbride VB, Rennie AF, Walmsley CA (2010) Conserving geodiversity sites in a changing climate: management challenges and responses. Geoheritage 2:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reynard E (2009) The assessment of geomorphosites. In: Reynard E, Coratza P, Regolini-Bissig G (eds) Geomorphosites. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, pp 63–71Google Scholar
  46. Reynard E, Fontana G, Kozlik L, Scapozza C (2007) A method for assessing "scientific" and "additional values" of geomorphosites. Geographica Helvetica Jg. 62. Heft 3:148–158Google Scholar
  47. Reynard E, Coratza P (2013) Scientific research on geomorphosites. A review of the activities of the IAG working group on geomorphosites over the last twelve years. Geogr Fis Dinam Quat 3:1–10Google Scholar
  48. Serrano E, Ruiz-Flaño P, Arroyo P (2009) Geodiversity assessment in a rural landscape: Tiermes-Caracena area (Soria, Spain). Memorie Descrittive Della Carta Geoligica d’Italia 87:173–180Google Scholar
  49. Silva JP, Rodrigues C, Pereira DI (2014) Mapping and analysis of geodiversity indices in the Xingu River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil. Geoheritage. doi: 10.1007/s12371-014-0134-8 Google Scholar
  50. White S, Mitchell M (2006) Geological heritage sites: a procedure and protocol for documentation and assessment. AESC2006, Melbourne, Australia, pp 2Google Scholar
  51. Wimbledon WA (2011) Geosites—a mechanism for protection, integrating national and international valuation of heritage sites. Geologia dell’Ambiente, supplemento n. 2/2011:13–25Google Scholar
  52. Wimbledon WA, Smith-Meyer S (eds) (2012) Geoheritage in Europe and its conservation. ProGEO, OsloGoogle Scholar
  53. Wimbledon WA, Benton MJ, Bevins RE, Black GP, Bridgland DR, Cleal CJ, Cooper RG, May VJ (1995) The development of a methodology for the selection of British Geological sites for geoconservation: part 1. Mod Geol 20:159–202Google Scholar
  54. Zouros N (2004) The European Geoparks Network. Geological heritage protection and local development. Episodes 27(3):165–171Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The European Association for Conservation of the Geological Heritage 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Earth SciencesPole of the University of MinhoBragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations