Advertisement

Geoheritage

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 151–162 | Cite as

Geomorphological Heritage of the Pyrenees National Park (France): Assessment, Clustering, and Promotion of Geomorphosites

  • Thierry Feuillet
  • Eric Sourp
Original Article

Abstract

The Pyrenees National Park is located in the western portion of the Pyrenees. It includes the majority of the peaks of height greater than 3000 m a.s.l. on the French side of the ridge. One region within this area (Cirque of Gavarnie) has been a listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1997. Its geomorphological heritage is exceptional and the National Park would like to promote it. The aim of this paper is thus to propose an example of the assessment and promotion of geomorphosites at a regional scale. The assessment only concerns glacial and periglacial landforms and is based on three criteria: scientific, cultural, and use values. Potential geomorphosite assessment results are divided into two rankings: one is based on a “management score” and the other on a “tourism score”. The highest-priority geomorphosites for management and tourism use are objectively defined, by making use of a hierarchical ascendant classification method which reveals three main groups of homogenous geomorphosites, interpreted as “High priority”, “Medium priority”, and “Low priority”. An example of tourism promotion (an educational panel) is given for one of the priority geomorphosites.

Keywords

Geomorphological heritage Geomorphosites Pyrenees National Park France 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank D. Mercier for his suggestions, S. Candel for improving the language, as well as E. Reynard and an anonymous reviewer for their corrections.

References

  1. Almeida JAS, Barbosa LMS, Pais AACC, Formosinho SJ (2007) Improving hierarchical cluster analysis: a new method with outlier detection and automatic clustering. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 87:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrère P (1953) Équilibre glaciaire actuel et Quaternaire dans l’Ouest des Pyrénées Centrales. Rev Géogr Pyrén Sud Ouest 24(2):116–134Google Scholar
  3. Boucau H (1922) Les glaciers des Pyrénées occidentales, d’après M. Ludovic Gaurier. Rev Géogr Alp 10(4):635–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bruschi VM, Cendrero A (2005) Geosite evaluation; can we measure intangible values? Quaternario 18(1):291–306Google Scholar
  5. Bruschi VM, Cendrero A (2009) Direct and parametric methods for the assessment of geosites and geomorphosites. In: Reynard E, Coratza P, Regolini-Bissig G (eds) Geomorphosites. Pfeil, München, pp 73–88Google Scholar
  6. Carton A, Coratza P, Marchetti M (2005) Guidelines for geomorphological sites mapping: examples from Italy. Géomorphol Relief Processus Environnement 3:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coratza P, Giusti C (2005) Methodological proposal for the assessment of the scientific quality of geomorphosites. Quaternario 18(1):307–313Google Scholar
  8. Coratza P, Regolini-Bissig G (2009) Methods for mapping geomorphosites. In: Reynard E, Coratza P, Regolini-Bissig G (eds) Geomorphosites. Pfeil, München, pp 89–103Google Scholar
  9. De Waele J, Melis MT (2008) Geomorphology and geomorphological heritage of the Ifrane-Azrou region (Middle Atlas, Morocco). Environ Geol 55:587–599Google Scholar
  10. Eydoux D, Maury L (1907) Les glaciers orientaux du Pic Long (Pyrénées centrales). Géogr 16(1):1–18Google Scholar
  11. Feuillet T, Portal C (2008) Les glaciers rocheux des Pyrénées centrales: un patrimoine naturel à découvrir. Pyrén 235:267–280Google Scholar
  12. Feuillet T, Sellier D (2008) Observations sur la limite inférieure de l’étage périglaciaire dans les Pyrénées centrales françaises (Bigorre). Environ Périglac 15:59–68Google Scholar
  13. Gaurier L (1921) Etudes glaciaires dans les Pyrénées françaises et espagnoles de 1900 à 1909. Garet-Haristoy, Pau, 363 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Grandgirard V (1999) L’évaluation des géotopes. Geol Insubrica 4:59–66Google Scholar
  15. González-Trueba JJ, Martín Moreno R, Serrano E (2007) El glaciarismo de la Pequeña Edad del Hielo en las Montañas Ibéricas. Síntesis y estado actual de conocimiento. Rev CG 21(1–2):57–86Google Scholar
  16. Grove JM (2004) Little ice ages. Routledge, London, 718 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Grove JM, Gellatly AF (1995) Little ice age glacier fluctuations in the Pyrénées. Z Gletsch Glazialgeol 31:199Google Scholar
  18. Höllermann PW (1967) Zur Verbreitung rezenter periglazialer Kleinformen in den Pyrenäen und Ostalpen. Gött Geogr Abh (40):198 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Höllermann PW (1968) Die rezenten Gletscher der Pyrenäen. Geogr Helv 23(4):157–168Google Scholar
  20. Michelier M (1887) Etude sur les variations des glaciers des Pyrénées. Ann Bur Cent Météorol FrGoogle Scholar
  21. Paris Panizza M (2001) Geomorphosites: concepts, methods and examples of geomorphological survey. Chin Sci Bull 46:4–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pereira P, Pereira D, Caetano Alves M (2007) Geomorphosite assessment in Montesinho Natural Park (Portugal). Geogr Helv 62(3):159–168Google Scholar
  23. Pralong JP (2003) Valorisation et vulgarisation des sciences de la Terre: les concepts de temps et d’espace et leur application à la randonnée pédestre In: Reynard E, Holzmann C, Guex D, Summermatter N (eds) Géomorphologie et Tourisme, Institut de géographie, Université de Lausanne, Travaux et Recherches 24 pp 115–127 (available on-line: http://mesoscaphe.unil.ch/Site-IGUL-Jahia/travaux_recherches.php)
  24. Pralong JP (2005) A method for assessing tourist potential and use of geomorphological sites. Géomorphol Relief Processus Environnement 3:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pralong JP (2006) Géotourisme et utilisation de sites naturels d’intérêt pour les sciences de la Terre. PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne (available on-line http://mesoscaphe.unil.ch/Site-IGUL-Jahia/travaux_recherches.php)
  26. Reynard E (2005) Géomorphosites et paysages. Géomorphol Relief Processus Environnement 3:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reynard E (2006) Fiche d’inventaire des géomorphosites. -http://www.unil.ch/igul/page17893.html
  28. Reynard E, Panizza M (2005) Geomorphosites: definition, assessment and mapping. An introduction. Géomorphol Relief Processus Environnement 3:177–180Google Scholar
  29. Reynard E, Fontana G, Kozlik L, Scapozza C (2007) A method for assessing «scientific» and «additional values» of geomorphosites. Geogr Helv 62(3):148–158Google Scholar
  30. Reynard E, Coratza P, Regolini-Bissig G (2009) Geomorphosites. Pfeil, München, 240 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Serrano E, González-Trueba JJ (2005) Assessment of geomorphosites in natural protected areas: the Picos de Europa National Park (Spain). Géomorphol Relief Processus Environnement 3:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Summermatter N (2003) Quelques réflexions sur les techniques scripto-illustratives utilisées dans les brochures relatives aux itineraries didactiques In: Reynard E, Holzmann C, Guex D, Summermatter N (eds) Géomorphologie et Tourisme, Institut de géographie, Université de Lausanne, Travaux et Recherches 24 pp 129–144 (available on-line: http://mesoscaphe.unil.ch/Site-IGUL-Jahia/travaux_recherches.php)
  33. Woodward J (2009) The physical geography of the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 663 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Zouros N (2007) Geomorphosite assessment and management in protected areas of Greece. The case of the Lesvos island coastal geomorphosites. Geogr Helv 62(3):169–180Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geography, LETG UMR 6554 CNRSUniversity Paris Sorbonne-Paris IVParisFrance
  2. 2.Pyrenees National Park, Villa FouldTarbesFrance

Personalised recommendations