A Persuasive Robot to Stimulate Energy Conservation: The Influence of Positive and Negative Social Feedback and Task Similarity on Energy-Consumption Behavior
- 605 Downloads
This research explored the persuasive effects on behavior of social feedback by a robotic agent. In two experiments, participants could save on energy while carrying out washing tasks on a simulated washing machine. In both experiments, we tested the persuasive effects of positive and negative social feedback and we compared these effects to factual feedback, which is more widely used. Results of both studies indicated that social feedback had stronger persuasive effects than factual feedback. Furthermore, results of both studies suggested an effect of feedback valence indicated by more economic behavior following negative feedback (social or factual) as compared to positive feedback. Overall, the strongest persuasive effects were exerted by negative social feedback. In addition, results of Experiment 2 indicated that task similarity increased the persuasive effects of negative feedback. The implications for persuasive robotic agent theory and design are discussed.
KeywordsHuman–robot interaction Persuasion Persuasive robotics Social feedback Energy conservation behavior
We wish to express our gratitude to Frans Jansen and Susanne Tak for running the experiments, and to Maaike Roubroeks, and the Persuasive Technology Lab Group at TUe for the fruitful discussions about this work.
- 4.Bank W (2010) Understanding the links between climate change and development. World development report 2010: development and climate change. The World Bank, Washington, pp 1–86 Google Scholar
- 10.Fogg BJ (2003) Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do. Morgan Kaufmann, Amsterdam Google Scholar
- 13.Lee E-J, Pae M-H, Kim D-H, Kim J-M, Kim J-Y (2008) Literature review of technologies and energy feedback measures impacting on the reduction of building energy consumption. In: Yoo S-D (ed) EKC2008 proceedings of the EU-Korea conference on science and technology, vol 124. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 223–228 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Reeves B, Nass CI (1996) The media equation: how people treat computers, television, and new media as real people and places. Cambridge University Press/CSLI, Cambridge Google Scholar
- 19.Siegel M, Breazeal C, Norton MI (2009) Persuasive robotics: the influence of robot gender on human behavior. In: IROS 2009, pp 2563–2568 Google Scholar
- 22.Oinas-Kukkonen H (2010) Behavior change support systems: research agenda and future directions. Lecture notes for computer science, persuasive, vol 6137. Springer, Berlin, pp 4–14 Google Scholar
- 26.Midden C, Ham J (2012) Persuasive technology to promote environmental behavior. In: Steg L, van den Berg AE, de Groot JIM (eds) Environmental psychology: an introduction. Wiley–Blackwell, New York Google Scholar
- 27.Ham J, Midden C (2010) A persuasive robotic agent to save energy: the influence of social feedback, feedback valence and task similarity on energy conservation behavior. In: Conference proceedings of social robotics 2010, Singapore Google Scholar
- 28.Ham J, Bokhorst R, Cuijpers R, Van der Pol D, Cabibihan J-J (2011) Making robots persuasive: the influence of combining persuasive strategies (gazing and gestures) by a storytelling robot on its persuasive power. In: Proceedings of the international conference on social robotics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 24–25 November 2011 Google Scholar
- 29.Reeves B, Nass C (1996) The media equation: how people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Cambridge University Press, New York Google Scholar
- 30.Cialdini RB (2009) Influence: the psychology of persuasion. Harper Collins, New York Google Scholar