Advertisement

International Journal of Social Robotics

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 563–573 | Cite as

Teleoperated Android Robot as Emotion Regulation Media

  • Shuichi Nishio
  • Koichi Taura
  • Hidenobu Sumioka
  • Hiroshi Ishiguro
Article

Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally examined whether changes in the facial expressions of teleoperated androids could affect and regulate operators’ emotion, based on the facial feedback theory of emotion and the phenomenon of body ownership transfer to the robot. Twenty-six Japanese participants had conversations with an experimenter based on a situation where participants feel anger and, during the conversation, the android’s facial expression changed according to a pre-programmed scheme. The results showed that the facial feedback from the android did occur. Moreover, by comparing the two groups of participants, one with operating the robot and another without operating it, we found that this facial feedback from the android robot occur only when participants operated the robot and, when an operator could effectively operate the robot, his/her emotional states were much affected by facial expression change of the robot.

Keywords

Teleoperated android robot Emotion regulation Facial feedback hypothesis Body ownership transfer 

References

  1. 1.
    Averill JR (1983) Studies on anger and aggression: implications for theories of emotion. Am Psychol 38(11):1145–1160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Botherel V, Maffiolo V (2006) Regulation of emotional attitudes for a better interaction: field study in call centres. In: Proc. 20th international symposium of human factors in telecommunication Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Botvinick M (1998) Rubber hands ’feel’ touch that eyes see. Nature 391(6669):756 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calvo RA, D’Mello S (2010) Affect detection: an interdisciplinary review of models, methods, and their applications. IEEE Trans Affect Comput 1(1):18–37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Derks D, Fischer AH, Bos AER (2008) The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: a review. Comput Hum Behav 24(3):766–785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frijda NH (1986) The emotions. Cambridge University Press, New York Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gross JJ (1998) The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Rev Gen Psychol 2(3):271–299 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gross JJ (2002) Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology 39:281–291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harris CR (2001) Cardiovascular responses of embarrassment and effects of emotional suppression in a social setting. J Pers Soc Psychol 81(5):886–897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ishi CT, Liu C, Ishiguro H, Hagita N (2012) Evaluation of a formant-based speech-driven lip motion generation. In: 13th annual conference of the international speech communication association (Interspeech 2012), Portland, Oregon, p P1a. 04 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Izard CE (1990) Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. J Pers Soc Psychol 58(3):487–498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kleinke C, Peterson T, Rutledge T (1998) Effects of self-generated facial expressions on mood. J Pers Soc Psychol 74:272–279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF (eds) (2008) Handbook of emotions. Guilford, New York Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    MacIntosh D (1996) Facial feedback hypotheses: evidence, implications, and directions. Motiv Emot 20:121–147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nakanishi H (2004) Freewalk: a social interaction platform for group behaviour in a virtual space. Int J Hum-Comput Stud 60(4):421–454 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nishio S, Ishiguro H, Hagita NG (2007) Teleoperated android of an existing person. In: de Pina Filho AC (ed) Humanoid robots: new developments. I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, pp 343–352 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nishio S, Watanabe T, Ogawa K, Ishiguro H (2012) Body ownership transfer to teleoperated android robot. In: International conference on social robotics (ICSR 2012), Chengdu, China, pp 398–407 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogawa T, Monchi R, Kikuya M, Suzuki N (2000) Development of the general affect scales. Jpn J Psychol 71(3):241–246. (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scherer KR, Ekman P (eds) (1984) Approaches to emotion. Erlbaum, New Jersey Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soussignan R (2002) Duchenne smile, emotional experience, and autonomic reactivity: a test of the facial feedback hypothesis. Emotion 2:52–74 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Strack F, Martin L, Stepper S (1988) Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis. J Pers Soc Psychol 54:768–777 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zeng Z, Pantic M, Roisman GI, Huang TS (2007) A survey of affect recognition methods: audio, visual and spontaneous expressions. In: Proc. 9th international conference on multimodal interfaces, pp 126–133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuichi Nishio
    • 1
  • Koichi Taura
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hidenobu Sumioka
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ishiguro
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Hiroshi Ishiguro LaboratoryAdvanced Telecommunications Research Institute InternationalKeihanna Science City, KyotoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Engineering ScienceOsaka UniversityToyonaka, OsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations