International Journal of Social Robotics

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 305–319 | Cite as

Safe Adaptive Compliance Control of a Humanoid Robotic Arm with Anti-Windup Compensation and Posture Control

  • Said Ghani Khan
  • Guido Herrmann
  • Tony Pipe
  • Chris Melhuish
  • Adam Spiers


Safety is very important for physical human-robot interaction. Compliance control can solve an important aspect of the safety problem by dealing with impact and other forces arising during close contact between humans and robots.

An adaptive compliance model reference controller was implemented in real-time on a 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) humanoid robotic arm in Cartesian space. The robot manipulator has been controlled in such a way as to follow the compliant passive behaviour of a reference mass-spring-damper system model subject to an externally sensed force. The redundant DOF were used to control the robot motion in a human-like pattern via minimization of effort, a function of gravity. Associated actuator saturation issues were addressed by incorporating a novel anti-windup (AW) compensator originally developed for a neural network scheme. The controller was simulated for a robotic arm representing the Bristol-Elumotion-Robotic-Torso II (BERT II) and then tested on the real BERT II arm. BERT II has been developed in collaboration by Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion Ltd.


Adaptive compliance control Safe human-robot-interaction Anti-windup compensation Posture control 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science & Business Media BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Said Ghani Khan
    • 1
  • Guido Herrmann
    • 2
  • Tony Pipe
    • 1
  • Chris Melhuish
    • 3
  • Adam Spiers
    • 2
  1. 1.Bristol Robotics Laboratory and University of West EnglandBristolUK
  2. 2.Bristol Robotics Laboratory and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of BristolBristolUK
  3. 3.Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of Bristol and University of West EnglandBristolUK

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