International Journal of Social Robotics

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 305–319 | Cite as

Safe Adaptive Compliance Control of a Humanoid Robotic Arm with Anti-Windup Compensation and Posture Control

  • Said Ghani Khan
  • Guido Herrmann
  • Tony Pipe
  • Chris Melhuish
  • Adam Spiers


Safety is very important for physical human-robot interaction. Compliance control can solve an important aspect of the safety problem by dealing with impact and other forces arising during close contact between humans and robots.

An adaptive compliance model reference controller was implemented in real-time on a 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) humanoid robotic arm in Cartesian space. The robot manipulator has been controlled in such a way as to follow the compliant passive behaviour of a reference mass-spring-damper system model subject to an externally sensed force. The redundant DOF were used to control the robot motion in a human-like pattern via minimization of effort, a function of gravity. Associated actuator saturation issues were addressed by incorporating a novel anti-windup (AW) compensator originally developed for a neural network scheme. The controller was simulated for a robotic arm representing the Bristol-Elumotion-Robotic-Torso II (BERT II) and then tested on the real BERT II arm. BERT II has been developed in collaboration by Bristol Robotics Laboratory and Elumotion Ltd.


Adaptive compliance control Safe human-robot-interaction Anti-windup compensation Posture control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Al-Jarrah M, Zheng Y (1998) Intelligent compliant motion control. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern, B Cybern 28:116–122 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albrichsfeld C, Tolle H (2002) A self-adjusting active compliance controller for multiple robots handling an object. Control Eng Pract 10:165–173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albrichsfeld C, Svinin M, Tolle H (1995) Learning approach to the active compliance control of multi-arm robots coupled through a flexible object. In: Proceedings of the 3rd European control conference Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albu-Schäffer A, Haddadin S, Ott C, Stemmer A, Wimböck T, Hirzinger G (2007) The dlr lightweight robot: design and control concepts for robots in human environments. Control Eng Pract 34:376–385 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arimoto S (1996) Control theory of non-linear mechanical systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford MATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bichi A, Tonietti G (2002) Design, realization and control of soft robot arms for intrinsically safe interaction with humans. In: Proceedings of the IARP/RAS workshop on technical challenges for dependable robots in human environments, pp 79–87 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chien M, Huang A (2004) Adaptive impedance control of robot manipulators based on function approximation technique. Int J Robot 22:395–403 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colbaugh R, Seraji H, Glass K (1995) Adaptive compliant motion control for dextrous manipulators. Int J Robot Res 14(3):270–280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Colbaugh R, Glass K, Wedeward K (1996) Adaptive compliance control of electrically-driven manipulators. In: Proceedings of the 35th conference on decision and control, Kobe, Japan, pp 394–399 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colbaugh R, Wedeward K, Glass K, Seraji H (1996) New results on adaptive compliant motion control for dextrous manipulators. Int J Robot Autom 11(1) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Sapio V, Khatib O, Delp S (2005) Simulating the task level control of human motion: a methodology and framework for implementation. Vis Comput 21(5):289–302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Filaretov V, Zuev A (2008) Adaptive force/position control of robot manipulators. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/ASME conference on advanced intelligent mehantronics, Xian, China, pp 96–101 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Formica D, Zollo L, Gulielmelli E (2005) Torque-dependent compliance control in the joint space of an operational robotic machine for motor therapy. In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE 9th international conference on rehabilitation robotics, Chicago, IL, USA, pp 341–344 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herrmann G, Turner M, Postlethwaite I (2007) Performance-oriented antwindup for a class of linear control systems with augmented neural network controller. IEEE Trans Neural Netw 18(2):449–465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang ZH (2005) Impedance control of flexible robot arms with parametric uncertainties. J Intell Robot Syst 42(2):113–133. doi: 10.1007/s10846-005-0933-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khalil HK (1996) Control theory of non-linear mechanical systems. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khatib O (1987) A unified approach for motion and force control of robot manipulators: The operational space formulation. IEEE J Robot Autom RA3 1:43–53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim B, Oh S, Suh H, Yi B (2000) A compliance control strategy for robot manipulators under unknown environment. KSME Int J 14:1081–1088 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Komada S, Ohnishi K (1988) Robust force and compliance control of robotics manipulators. In: Proceedings of the international conference on industrial electronics, Hyatt Regency, Singapore Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lewis F, Dawson D, Abdallah C (2003) Robot manipulator control: theory and practice. Marcel Dekker, New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nemec B, Zlajpah L (2000) Null space velocity control with dynamically consistent pseudo-inverse. Robotica 18(1):513–518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niemeyer G, Slotine J (1989) Computational algorithm for adaptive compliant control. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, Scottsdale, AZ, USA, pp 566–571 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Niemeyer G, Slotine J (1990) Adaptive Cartesian control of redundant manipulators. In: Proceedings of the American control conference, USA, pp 234–241 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ott C, Albu-Scha̋ffer A, Kugi A, Hirzinger G (2003) Decoupling based Cartesian impedance control of flexible joint robots. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, Taipei, Taiwan Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peng Z, Adachi N (1993) Compliant motion control of kinematically redundant manipulators. IEEE Trans Robot Autom 9:831–837 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seraji H (1994) Adaptive compliance control: an approach to implicit force control in compliant motion.
  27. 27.
    Shetty B, Ang M (1996) Active compliance control of a puma 560 robot. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on of robotics and automation, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Canada Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Siciliano B, Villani L (1996) Adaptive compliant control of robot manipulators. Int J Control Eng Pract 4:705–712 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Slotine J, Li W (1991) Applied nonlinear control, pearson. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Spiers A, Herrmann G, Melhuish C (2009a) Implementing ‘discomfort’ in operational space: practical application of a human motion inspired robot controller. TAROS conference: Towards autonomous robotic systems Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spiers A, Herrmann G, Melhuish C, Pipe T, Lenz A (2009b) In: Robotic implementation of realistic reaching motion using a sliding mode/operational space controller. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ICSR’09. Springer, Berlin, pp 230–238 Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tsumugiwa T, Yokogawa R, Hara K (2002) Variable impedance control based on estimation of human arm stiffness for human-robot cooperative calligraphic task. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on robotics, Washington, USA, pp 644–650 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang W, Huang Q, Du P, Li J, Li K (2005) Compliance control of a humanoid arm based on forced feedback. In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE international conference on information acquisition, Hong Kong and Macau, China Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zollo L, Siciliano B, Laschi C, Teti G, Dario P (2003) An experimental study on compliance control for a redundant personal robot arm. Robot Auton Syst 44:101–129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science & Business Media BV 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Said Ghani Khan
    • 1
  • Guido Herrmann
    • 2
  • Tony Pipe
    • 1
  • Chris Melhuish
    • 3
  • Adam Spiers
    • 2
  1. 1.Bristol Robotics Laboratory and University of West EnglandBristolUK
  2. 2.Bristol Robotics Laboratory and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of BristolBristolUK
  3. 3.Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of Bristol and University of West EnglandBristolUK

Personalised recommendations