International Journal of Social Robotics

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 71–81 | Cite as

Measurement Instruments for the Anthropomorphism, Animacy, Likeability, Perceived Intelligence, and Perceived Safety of Robots

  • Christoph BartneckEmail author
  • Dana Kulić
  • Elizabeth Croft
  • Susana Zoghbi
Open Access
Original Paper


This study emphasizes the need for standardized measurement tools for human robot interaction (HRI). If we are to make progress in this field then we must be able to compare the results from different studies. A literature review has been performed on the measurements of five key concepts in HRI: anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety. The results have been distilled into five consistent questionnaires using semantic differential scales. We report reliability and validity indicators based on several empirical studies that used these questionnaires. It is our hope that these questionnaires can be used by robot developers to monitor their progress. Psychologists are invited to further develop the questionnaires by adding new concepts, and to conduct further validations where it appears necessary.


Human factors Robot Perception Measurement 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph Bartneck
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dana Kulić
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Croft
    • 3
  • Susana Zoghbi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Industrial DesignEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Nakamura & Yamane Lab, Department of Mechano-InformaticsUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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