The role of cardiac imaging in the management of non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus infection

  • Ahmed Aljizeeri
  • Gary Small
  • Saurabh Malhotra
  • Ronny Buechel
  • Diwakar Jain
  • Girish Dwivedi
  • Mouaz H. Al-MallahEmail author
Review Article


Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become the pandemic of the new century. About 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1996 has dramatically changed the global landscape of HIV care, resulting in significantly improved survival and changing HIV to a chronic disease. With near-normal life expectancy, contemporary cardiac care faces multiple challenges of cardiovascular diseases, disorders specific to HIV/AIDS, and those related to aging and higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Non-ischemic cardiovascular diseases are major components of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS. Non-invasive cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the management of these diseases. This review summarizes the non-ischemic presentation of the HIV cardiovascular spectrum focusing on the role of cardiac imaging in the management of these disorders.


Cardiomyopathy heart failure human immunodeficiency virus endocarditis pericarditis vasculitis 



Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


Antiretroviral therapy






Gating with blood pool SPECT (GBPS)


Human immunodeficiency virus


Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction


Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)




Time to the peak filling



Dr. Diwakar Jain is on the speaker bureau of Astellas, and has received consultancy from Astellas and Regeneron. Dr. Girish Dwivedi is on the speaker’s bureau of Astra Zeneca and Amgen. Drs. Ahmed Aljizeeri, Gary Small, Saurabh Malhotra, Ronny Buechel, and Mouaz H. Al-Mallah have nothing to disclose.

Supplementary material

12350_2019_1676_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (486 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 486 kb)


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Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Aljizeeri
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gary Small
    • 4
  • Saurabh Malhotra
    • 5
    • 6
  • Ronny Buechel
    • 7
  • Diwakar Jain
    • 8
  • Girish Dwivedi
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
  • Mouaz H. Al-Mallah
    • 12
    Email author
  1. 1.King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, Ministry of National Guard-Health AffaireRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.King Abdullah International Medical Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health SciencesRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Ottawa Heart InstituteOttawaCanada
  5. 5.Division of CardiologyCook County HealthChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Division of CardiologyRush Medical CollegeChicagoUSA
  7. 7.Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cardiac ImagingUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  8. 8.Division of Cardiology and Nuclear MedicineNew York Medical College/Westchester Medical CenterHawthorneUSA
  9. 9.Fiona Stanley HospitalMurdochAustralia
  10. 10.Harry Perkins Institute of Medical ResearchMurdochAustralia
  11. 11.The University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  12. 12.Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular CenterHouston Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA

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