Evaluation of different respiratory gating schemes for cardiac SPECT

  • Duo Zhang
  • P. Hendrik Pretorius
  • Michael Ghaly
  • Qi Zhang
  • Michael A. King
  • Greta S. P. MokEmail author
Original Article



Respiratory gating reduces motion blurring in cardiac SPECT. Here we aim to evaluate the performance of three respiratory gating strategies using a population of digital phantoms with known truth and clinical data.


We analytically simulated 60 projections for 10 XCAT phantoms with 99mTc-sestamibi distributions using three gating schemes: equal amplitude gating (AG), equal count gating (CG), and equal time gating (TG). Clinical list-mode data for 10 patients who underwent 99mTc-sestamibi scans were also processed using the 3 gating schemes. Reconstructed images in each gate were registered to a reference gate, averaged and reoriented to generate the polar plots. For simulations, image noise, relative difference (RD) of averaged count for each of the 17 segment, and relative defect size difference (RSD) were analyzed. For clinical data, image intensity profile and FWHM were measured across the left ventricle wall.


For simulations, AG and CG methods showed significantly lower RD and RSD compared to TG, while noise variation was more non-uniform through different gates for AG. In the clinical study, AG and CG had smaller FWHM than TG.


AG and CG methods show better performance for motion reduction and are recommended for clinical respiratory gating SPECT implementation.


Respiratory gating Cardiac perfusion SPECT/CT Simulation 



Single photon emission computed tomography






Equal amplitude gating


Equal count gating


Equal time or phase gating


Relative difference


Normalized standard deviation


Relative defect size difference





This work was supported by research grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (81601525), Macau Science and Technology Development Fund (114/2016/A3), University of Macau (MYRG2016-00091-FST) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (R01 HL122484). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes.



Supplementary material

12350_2018_1392_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (630 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 629 kb)


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Copyright information

© American Society of Nuclear Cardiology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duo Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Hendrik Pretorius
    • 2
  • Michael Ghaly
    • 3
    • 4
  • Qi Zhang
    • 1
  • Michael A. King
    • 2
  • Greta S. P. Mok
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (BIG), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of MacauTaipaChina
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Radiopharmaceutical Imaging and Dosimetry (RAPID), LLCBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of MacauTaipaChina

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